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Child Psychology [CHAPTER NOTES] Part 10 - I got a 4.0 in the course

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DEP 3103
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Chapter 10 – Emotional Development  For many years, emotion was neglected in the study of children’s development • Overshadowed by cognition : they’re really not distinct from one another  Emotions: rapid appraisal of personal significance of situations • “feeling”; affect that occurs when they’re taking place in an interaction that is important to them • Functionalist approach: → Energize behavior → Prepare for action → Central to personal ⇒ How and why we attain them → Functions of emotions ⇒ Central in all our endeavors: • Cognition- lead to learning essential for survival; can impair learning • Social- affect behavior of others; regulate own behavior • Health- influence well-being, growth; stress related to diseases → Non-organic failure to thrive & psychosocial dwarfism  health problems due to emotional problems/neglect  First appearance of emotions • Earliest emotional life consists mainly of two global arousal states: → Attraction to pleasant stimulation → Withdrawal from unpleasant stimulation • Middle of first year become well-organized (more like those that we recognize as adults)  can tell us if the infant has healthy development occurring or not (ex.- autism: tend not to do the social smile or make eye contact as much) • Facial expressions offer most reliable cues of infant emotions • Across cultures, interpret same emotions • Basic emotions → Can be directly inferred from facial expressions → Happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust → Evolutionary history, promote survival – it helps them get effective caregiving → They’re innate, they don’t need interaction with people to be evoked • Happiness → Smile- from birth ⇒ Evokes heartwarming feelings; you just want to pick them up and protect them → Social smile – 6 to 10 weeks ⇒ Social smile = broad grin evoked by the stimulus of a human face; specifically smiles at things that catch their eyes → Laugh – 3 to 4 months → By the end of the first year, infant show differential smile for different situations • Fear → First fears: 6-12 months (this is about the same time children are becoming mobile- this is adaptive to stop kids from doing all kinds of crazy things) → Stranger anxiety- 8-12 months ⇒ Wariness to unfamiliar adults ⇒ Not universal ⇒ Depends on • Temperament • Past experience with strangers • Self-conscious emotions → Involve injury to or enhancement of our sense of self ⇒ Include shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride → Emerge end of second year → Need adult instruction about when to feel them ⇒ Adult feedback is strongly related to self-evaluated ⇒ Cultural differences: western- toward being prideful in a good situation; collectivist- tend to learn shame faster than anything else  Emotional Self-Regulation • The strategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level to accomplish our goals • Requires voluntary, effortful management of emotions • Improves gradually as a result of brain development and assistance of caregivers → By school age, most children have gotten a lot better at it; teachers help learn this better • Well-developed emotional self-regulation → Emotional self-efficacy in young people ⇒ the feeling of being in control of their emotional experience
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