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Child Psychology [CHAPTER NOTES] Part 6 - I got a 4.0 in the course

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DEP 3103
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Chapter 6: Cognitive Development  Cognitive Development Research • Cognition = . → Includes all mental activity → E.g., attending, remembering, symbolizing, categorizing, planning, reasoning, problem solving, creating, and fantasizing  Cognitive-Developmental Theory • Jean Piaget → Don’t start out cognitive being… → Adaptation of mind over time → develops to fit with world • Constructivist = . → perceptual & motor activities • Four broad stages characterized by qualitatively different ways of thinking → Stages provide a general theory of development → Stages are invariant → Stages are universal → Some key words • Schemes: organized ways of making sense of experience • Adaptation: building schemes through direct interaction with the environment • Assimilation: . • Accommodation: . • Equilibration: movement between equilibrium (assimilate more) and disequilibrium (accommodate more) → Adult labels a crayon as “orange” and the child tries to taste it → Child sees a shark at the aquarium and asks his mother if she saw the “fish” → Child learns that although a dolphin lives in the ocean, it is a mammal and not a fish → After initially falling on the ice, the child learns to complete a skating, rather than running, action  Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development • Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage → Birth to 2 years → “Think” (building schemes) with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment → Can’t yet carry out many activities mentally ⇒ Instead do circular reactions → Sensorimotor Substages ⇒ Intentional Behavior ⇒ 8-12 mons. → Object Permanence = . ⇒ Retrieve hidden objects ⇒ Incomplete at first; Still search for it at the first hiding place; Awareness not complete ⇒ Testing Understanding of Object Permanence Using the Violation-of-Expectation Method • Mental Representation (18mons - 2yrs) • Mentally representations begin ~18mons • Mental Representations = . → Images: objects, people, places • Concepts: categories • Can manipulate with mind ⇒ Make-believe play → Development of Categorization ⇒ Categorization helps infants make sense of experience ⇒ More manageable  Reduces amount of new information constantly encountered → Habituation and recovery research ⇒ 6-12-month-olds organize objects into meaningful categories ⇒ E.g., food items, furniture, birds, → Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage ⇒ About 40% of U.S. 3-month-olds watch television regularly (90% by age 2). ⇒ Infants confuse video images with reality. ⇒ Studies show video deficit effect on toddlers: ⇒ Experts recommend against mass media exposure before age 2½. • The Preoperational Stage& Mental Representation → 2 to 7 years → Big increase in mental representation → Most obvious change from sensorimotor → Language most flexible means → Limitations of Preoperational Thought ⇒ Piaget described preschool children in terms of what they cannot, rather than can, understand. ⇒ Cannot perform mental operations ⇒ Operations = mental representations of actions that obey logical rules. ⇒ Egocentrism and animistic thinking ⇒ Cannot conserve ⇒ Lack hierarchical classification ⇒ Egocentrism and animistic thinking • Egocentrism = inability to distinguish the symbolic thinking of others from own ⇒ Animistic = Tendency to attribute thoughts, feelings, and emotions to inanimate objects ⇒ Usually use motion as a cue to something being “alive” → How Piaget was right ⇒ Preschoolers do develop beginnings of logical thinking • Concrete Operational Stage → 7 to 11 years → Major turning point in cognitive development → More logical, flexible & organized → Concrete Operational Stage Achievements ⇒ Decentration ⇒ Reversibility ⇒ Ability to order items along a quantitative dimenstion ⇒ Transitive inference: seriate mentally ⇒ Mental rotations ⇒ Directions improved ⇒ Cognitive maps → Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought ⇒ Operations work best w/ concrete objects ⇒ Problems w/ abstract ideas ⇒ Continuum of Acquisition ⇒ Mastery gradual • Formal operational stage (11 and older) → Capacity for abstract, systematic, and scientific thinking → Hypothetico-deductive reasoning ⇒ Deducing hypotheses from general theory ⇒ Possibility  reality ⇒ Not as limited ⇒ Pendulum problem → Propositional thought ⇒ Logic of verbal propositions → Consequences of abstract thought ⇒ Self-consciousness and self-focusing • Imaginary audience (everyone is always looking at you) • Sensitivity to criticism (you take criticism more harshly and can’t separate it from the person who’s giving it) • Personal fable (others are always thinking about them which leads to an inflated opinion of self-ego/self-importance) ⇒ Id
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