Normal vs. Abnormal is, by definition, relative.
• Wellness and function exists on a continuum.
• Anxiety, in the right proportion, has value.
• It is when it is taken to an extreme, that we become concerned
1. Symptoms that are deviant—statistically (outliers), as well as culturally bound
ideas as to what is normal vs. what is abnormal
2. Dysfunctional: interferes with selfcare, relationships, job, and/or daily life
3. Distressing: either personal or interpersonal
• Often egocentonic—when a person does not realize what he or she is
doing is bad/wrong
Axis I and Axis II Disorders:
• Axis I: tends to be more cyclical
o Ex: Depression, Bipolar, Schizophrenia seem to have peaks and
o Need to be cautious in applying Big 5 because of remission peaks