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Chapter 20

BISC 3221 Chapter Notes - Chapter 20: Glycolipid, Rh Blood Group System, Hemolysis

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BISC 3221
Craig Frank

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Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System (Blood)
20.1 Functions and Composition of Blood
Blood is fluid connective tissue, distributes nutrients, oxygen, hormones to cells; carries waste to
kidneys, transports specialized defense cells to peripheral tissues
Plasma: liquid matrix of blood, about as dense as water, contains dissolved proteins, not fiber
networks, and many dissolved solutes
Formed elements: blood cells and fragments in plasma; red blood cells transport O2 and CO2;
leukocytes are components of immune system; platelets are small membrane enclosed packets
with enzymes and factors for blood clotting
Whole blood = plasma + formed elements (can be separated AKA fractionated)
o Sticky, cohesive, resistant to flow, interaction of water molecules and formed elements
make whole blood more viscous than just plasma
Hypovolemic (low BP), normovolemic (normal BP), and hypervolemic (high BP)
55% of volume of whole blood
Plasma is 92% water on average
Contains many proteins
o Albumins: contribute to osmotic pressure of plasma, transport lipids, steroid hormones
o Globulins: transport ions, hormones, lipids; immune function (immunoglobulins AKA
antibodies); transport globulins bind small ions, hormones, compounds that’s are
insoluble/might be filtered out by kidneys
o Fibrinogen: essential to clotting, can be converted to fibrin (large, insoluble strands);
blood without clotting proteins is serum
o Regulatory proteins: enzymes, proenzymes, hormones
Other Solutes
o Electrolytes: Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, HPO4, SO4
o Organic nutrients: used for ATP production, growth, cell maintenance
o Organic wastes: urea, uric acid, creatinine, bilirubin, ammonium ions
Differences Between Plasma and Interstitial Fluid
Similar ion concentrations
Dissolved O2 content in plasma is higher than in interstitial fluid
Plasma contains quantities of dissolved proteins, interstitial fluid does not
The Plasma Proteins
o Lipoproteins: proteins attached to lipids that are not water soluble, makes them readily
dissolvable in plasma so insoluble lipids can be delivered to peripheral tissues
Liver synthesizes and releases 90% of plasma proteins
20.2 Formed Elements
Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
AKA erythrocytes, slightly less than 50% total blood volume
Hematocrit: percentage of whole blood contributed by formed elements; in men, 45, in women 42
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