APPH 1040 Chapter 2: Chapter 2: Promoting and Preserving Your Psychological Health

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Georgia Institute of Technology
Applied Physiology
APPH 1040

Chapter 2: Promoting and Preserving Your Psychological Health  Resiliency: Ability to adapt to change and stress in healthy ways  LO1: What is Psychological Health? o Psychological Health: Mental, emotional, social and spiritual dimensions of health o Traits of psychologically healthy people  Feel good about themselves  Feel comfortable with other people, respect others  Control tension and anxiety  Meet the demands of life  Curb hate and guilt  Maintain a positive outlook  Value diversity  Appreciate and respect the world around them o Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs (bottom to top)  Survival needs: food, sleep, water  Security needs: shelter and safety  Social needs: sense of belonging and affection  Esteem needs: self-respect and respect for others  Self-actualization: self-transcendence o For a person to be healthy their needs must be met at each of these levels  Must fill lower needs before looking to higher level needs o Mental Health  Mental Health is the thinking part of psychological health – includes values, attitudes and beliefs  Intellectual health – a subset of mental health – is the ability to learn and use information to grow o Emotional Health  Emotional Health is the feeling part of psych health – includes emotional reactions  Emotions: Feelings or complex patterns of feelings o Combination of physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes and behavioral reactions  Emotional intelligence: Someone’s ability to identify, understand, use and manage emotional states in positive ways  4 Core abilities: self-awareness, self-management, relationship management, social awareness  Emotional health affects social and intellectual (mental) health o Social Health  Social Health: Includes interactions with others, ability to use social supports and adapt to social situations  Social Bonds: Level of closeness we develop with other people. Considered the foundation for life providing  Intimacy  Feelings of belonging  Reassurance of worth  Assistance and guidance  Advice  Social support: Network of people and services with whom you share ties and from whom you get support  Tangible support: Babysitting, money to help pay bills  Intangible support: Encouraging to help you share concerns o Spiritual Support  Spirituality is rooted in a person’s sense of purpose and meaning in life  Religion does not have to be involved  Spiritual Health: Relates to having a sense of meaning and purpose, as well as feeling of connection with other people and nature  LO2: Factors that Influence Psychological Health o The Family  Families have a significant influence on psychological development as healthy families help their children become functioning adults and  Dysfunctional families: Families in which there is violence; physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; significant parent issues; or other negative family interactions  Growing up in a dysfunctional family can hurt a person’s psychological health o Support System  Although our family is our first support system, friends and peers will become important social supports later o Community  Communities play an important role in psychological health because of collective action, showing support for each other and creating a good environment o 64 million Americans volunteer at least once a year o Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem  Self-efficacy is a person’s belief about whether they can successfully do certain things  Self-esteem is a person’s sense of self-respect or self-worth  Higher levels of both express a positive outlook on life o Learned Helplessness versus Learned Optimism  Learned helplessness, a behavior in which people respond to situations by giving up, happens because of repeated failures in the past  Victimology: Blaming one’s problems on other people and circumstances o Can erode self-efficacy  Learned optimism is teaching oneself to think positive by changing the way we think about ourselves o Defense Mechanisms  Defense mechanisms are used to deflect negative emotions and stress o Personality: Mix of characteristics that distinguishes your from others  Agreeableness: Trusting, likeable, friendly  Openness: Curiosity, independence, imagination  Neuroticism: Anxious and insecure  Conscientiousness: Dependable, self-control, discipline  Extroversion: Adapt well in social situations, demonstrate assertiveness  We have the power to mold our personalities o Life Span and Maturity  Our experiences and our learning as young children as they relate to our emotions and handling our emotions can shape our future  LO3: The Mind-Body Connection o Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) involves the study of the interactions of behavioral, neural and endocrine functions and the function of someone’s immune system  Center of research of mind-body connection o Happiness: Several positive states in which people embrace the world around them  Shown to have a strong tie to impacting our bodily function  Laughter reduces stress  Happiness from doing good is better for you than happiness from pleasure seeking activities o Subjective well-being: Uplifting feeling of inner peace – including happiness made up of 3 factors  Satisfaction with life  Relative presence of positive emotions  Relative absence of negative emotions o Genetics can influence a person’s happiness o 5 elements of well-being  Positive emotion  Engagement  Relationships  Meaning  Accomplishment  LO4: Strategies to Enhance Psychological Health o Tips on managing stress and bettering psychological health  Develop a support system: Good for self-esteem  Complete required tasks to the best of your ability: Good for self-efficacy  Form realistic expectations: Set yourself up for success  Make time for you: Good for self-esteem  Maintain physical health: Good for sense of well-being  Examine problems and get help when needed: Can boost self-esteem  Get adequate sleep: Helps to restore neurotransmitters – chemicals that relay messages between nerve cells or from nerve cells to body cells. o PERMA to Enhance Happiness  Positive Emotions  Engagement  Relationships  Meaning  Achievement  LO5: When Psychological Health Deteriorates o Mental Illness: Disorder that disrupts thinking, feeling, moods and behaviors that can impair functioning in daily life  Caused by biochemical, genetic and environmental factors o Risk factors for mental illness  Having relatives with mental illness  Malnutrition or exposure to viruses in womb  Stressful life situations  Chronic medical conditions  War  Drugs  Childhood abuse  Lack of healthy relationships o 43 million adults have been diagnosed with mental illness in last year  20% of Americans 18+ suffer from a mental disorder  Half of them have more than one  5% su
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