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Chapter 2

BIOL 1520 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Programmed Cell Death, Asexual Reproduction, Gametogenesis


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1520
Professor
Garton
Chapter
2

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Multicellularity, Development, and Reproduction
Process that control Development and Specialization
Five steps:
1. Cell proliferation: reproduction of new cells via mitosis
2. Programmed cell death: death of specific cells
3. Cell movement: movement to new locations in the body (in animals) or differentiation
expansion of cells in a specific direction (in plants)
4. Cell differentiation: the process of becoming a specific cell type, such as a bone cell or a muscle
cell
5. Induction: cell-cell communication or signaling
The timing of these developmental processes is highly regulated, and together result in development of
speifi tissue tpes ad ophogeesis deelopet of a ogais’s oeall shape.
Eukaryotic Reproduction
Asexual reproduction:
a) Binary fission splitting in two equal halves
b) Multiple fission splitting into more than 2 cells
c) Budding outgrowth of a new cell from an old cell/new organism from old organism
d) Fragmentation mature organism splits into fragments capable of forming new organisms
e) Spores specialized cells capable of forming a new organism; usually haploid and produced by
meiosis
f) Parthenogenesis development of unfertilized egg into new organism
g) Poyembryony fertilized egg splits to form genetically identical clones
h) Vegetative growth growth of new organism from meristematic cells without spores or gametes
Three fundamental steps to sexual reproduction:
1. Gametogenesis making gametes
2. Mating getting gametes together
3. Fertilization fusing gametes
Gametes: a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex
in sexual reproduction to form a zygote
Spores: a minute, typically one-celled, reproductive unit capable of giving rise to a new individual without
sexual fusion
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Diagram of Different Life Cycle
Haplontic Life
Diplontic Life
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Alternation of Generation
Animal Reproductive Strategies
External Fertilization
This usually occurs in aquatic environments where both eggs and sperms are released into the water,
a process called spawning.
Water protects the eggs from drying out during development
In some species, there are environmental or biological (pheromones) cues that cause males and
females to release gametes at the same time
In other species, including many amphibians, individual males court individual females to induce the
female to release the eggs, at which point the male releases the sperm to fertilize that individual
feale’s eggs
Internal Fertilization
Three ways that offspring are produced:
1. Fetilized eggs ae laid outside the feale’s od ad deelop thee, ad the eo eeies
nourishment from the yolk that is a part of the egg. This occurs in most bony fish, many reptiles,
some cartilaginous fish, most amphibians, two mammals, and all birds.
2. Fetilized eggs ae etaied iside the feale’s od, ut the eo eeies ouishet fo
the egg’s olk ad the oug ae full deeloped he the ae hatched. This occurs in some bony
fish, some sharks, some lizards, some snakes, some vipers, and some invertebrate animals.
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