Chapter 6 notes.docx

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History, Technology & Society
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Tom Wang

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Big Picture/preview InteractionBetweenHumansand theEnvironment-Demography India and Southeast Asia 1500 BCE – 600 CE and disease Migration, Patterns The creation, influence and technologies of Indian Empires of settlement Technology Developmentand Interactionof Cultures-Belief systems Scienceand technology, arts and architecture. State-building,Expansion,andConflict-Political structures and forms of governance, expansion. Creation,Expansion,andInteractionofEconomic Systems-Agricultural and pastoral production, Trade, Laborsystems. Developmentand TransformationofSocialStructures Gender roles and relations, Family and kinship, Racial and ethnic constructions Socialandeconomicclasses Topic Heading Info Examples of themes - Indian subcontinent 2000 mi in length and breadth and isolated from Asia due to the and Sub Human Environment Headings Himalayas Interaction - subcontinent divided into 3 topographical zones: mountainous north, great basins of Indus I. Foundations of and Ganges Rivers, and the peninsula arid and rocky plateau Indian Civilization - Mountains in north protect from cold Arctic winds, Asia swings rapidly from seasonal 1500 BCE – 300 CE extremes of hot and cold A. Indian - Monsoons bring rain in large amounts from the Indian Ocean, make it sometimes possible to have 3 harvests a year Subcontinent - Indian Ocean linked Indians with Mesopotamia in trade B. Vedic Age 1500 – - foundations of India made in this age - Nomadic warriors speaking Indo – European languages migrated into NW India in 1500 Migration 500 BCE BCE - After collapse of Indus Valley Civilization region became home to kinship groups with father as dominating member - After 1000 BCE these groups pushed into Ganges Plain, and iron tools allowed settlers to create new farmland - In this time bitter rivalry between Aryas, indo-european lang speakers and Dasas, Dravidian lang speakers; Dasas pushed into South by Aryas - Skin color one of the divisions of class causing varna “color” (class) 4 classes: Brahmin,evelopment and Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra : Untouchables excluded from caste system Transformation of Social - According to creation myth a creature name Purusha allowed itself to be sacrified: from Structures its mouth came the Brahmins, knowledge and intellect, ; from arms the Kshatriyas, warriors, ; from thighs the Vaishyas, the landowners, ; and from its feet the Shudra workers - Within castes there were jati, birth groups Belief Systems - Believed that every living creature an essence, the atman, which could be later reborn into another body after death - What the body was depended on karma, deeds of previous incarnations - Dominant deities in Vedic were male and associated with heaven: Indra, god of war, Varuna, lord of sky, and Agni, force of fire - Sacrifices used to promote stability of world - Brahmins maintained religious power for only they knew the rituals and passed down father to son C. Challenges to the - After 700 BCE people rose against Brahmin power; those who objected community or Old Order: Jainism caste system went to live in the forest and Buddhism - Some who lived in the forests attracted bands of followers offering alternative paths to salvation, one such is yoga, pursuit of insight into nature of self through physical and mental discipline - The Upanishads, a collection of mystic dialogues between student and teachers, reflect the questioning of Vedic foundation - Most serious threat to Vedic religion was emergence of Jainism and Buddhim - Jainism emphasizes holiness of life force that animates all living creatures and practices strict nonviolence; restricted agriculture by injunction against killing and became city dwellers who engaged in commerce and banking - Siddhartha Guatama, the Buddha, came from Kshatriya family gave up family and privilege to become a wandering ascetic - Buddhism follows the 4 noble truths ( life is suffering, suffering arises from desire, solution to suffering lies in curbing desire, desire can be curbed if one follows the Eightfold path) set by the Buddha under a tree - Buddhism denied the usefulness of Gods to a person seeking enlightenment; the ultimate reward was nirvana, release from the cycle of reincarnation and achievement of tranquility - When Buddha died he left no final instructions instead urging followers to create their own path - Buddhists revered bodhisattvas, men and women who could achieve nirvana but choose not to, to help others - Early makers of idols of Buddha refused to show him as a living person and represented him indirectly like through symbols D. The Rise of Hinduism - Vedic religion made adjustments to challenge newly emerging religions to create Belief Systems Hinduism - Foundation of Hinduism was the Vedic religion of Aryans - Brahmins maintained high social status but sacrifice less central and more opportunity for direct contact with deities - Gods were altered: formerly minor gods Vishnu and Shiva got preeminent positions, Hinduism emphasized personally devotion to a certain deity Vishnu, Shiva. Or Devi (the goddess) - Shiva and Devi from Dravidian cultures show mix of Dravidian and non Dravidian cultures mixed to form Hinduism - Vishnu, the preserver, helps deities to in times of need; comes to Earth when world threatened by demons - Shiva represents creation and destruction as a cyclical process - Devi takes many forms such as goddess of fertility, mother-goddess, and Kali or Durga frightening deities who let loose a torrent of violence - All gods seen as a manifestation of a single divine force -Hinduism offers worshippers variety of ways to approach gods: through knowledge and sacred truths, mental and physical discipline, or extraordinary devotion - Common form of worship is puja, service to deity - Pilgrimages to tirthayatras, pilgrim sites, are opportunities to show devotion - Ganges river believed to have restorative and purifying powers - Ideal life cycle of 3 upper classes is: young man studies sacred texts, he is married and acquires wealth, when grandchildren are born he gives up home becomes a forest dweller meditating, he abandons personal identity altogether and becomes a wandering ascetic awaiting death - Hinduism responded to needs of people for personal deities II. Imperial Expansion and - Political unity in India has not lasted long due to carried terrains and cultural practicesExpansion Collapse, 324 BCE – - Kingdom of Magadha, in Eastern India, located in a strategic location along trade routes 650 CE
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