Chapter 7 notes.docx

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Department
History, Technology & Society
Course
HTS 6XXX
Professor
Tom Wang
Semester
Spring

Description
Big Picture/preview InteractionBetweenHumansand Network of Communication and Exchange 300 BCE – 600 CE theEnvironment-Demography of settlement Technologyatterns Spread of Cultures and Trade between Asia, Mediterranean, and Africa Developmentand Interactionof Cultures-Belief systems Scienceand technology, arts and architecture. State-building,Expansion,andConflict-Political structures and forms of governance, expansion. Creation,Expansion,andInteractionofEconomic Systems-Agricultural and pastoral production, Trade, Laborsystems. Developmentand TransformationofSocialStructures Gender roles and relations, Family and kinship, Racial and ethnic constructions Socialandeconomicclasses Topic Heading Info Examples of themes and Sub - Europeans interested in trade route linking Mediterranean with China through Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia, Silk Road - Interaction of Economic Headings - Parthinians, from East of Caspian Sea became major force by 247 BCE, their location onSystem I. Silk Road threshold of Central Asia and connections with Steppe Nomads helped foster Silk Road A. Origins and - In 128 BCE Chinese general Zhang Jian made first exploration of deserts and mountains Operations of inner Asia opening up connections of overland trade with Western lands and bringing new plants and animals to China - People of steppe used their herds as beasts of burden for traders - Silk Road caused by Chinese eagerness for Western products - Caravans also brought goods along central Asian cities - Traders going west from China took new fruits like peaches and apricots, cinnamon, ginger, and other spices Statebuilding II. Sasanid - Rise of Sasanid Empire in Iran brought continuation of rivalry between Rome and Parthinians Empire 224 - 600 - Sasanid silver work and silk prove sumptuous lifestyle of elite - Cities were small walled communities protecting trade - Sasanid farmers pioneered in cotton, sugar cane, rice, citrus trees, eggplants and other plants from India and China Belief System - Zoroastrianism main religion of Sasanids, greatly affected culture of Silk Road - Zoroastiranism and Christianity intolerant, Iran persecuted Christians, Jews, and Buddhists - Christians became pawns in political rivalry with Byzantines and sometime persecuted - Byzantine bishops declared Nestorian Christians heretic for emphasizing Christ’s humanness - As trade became more important people increasingly settled in trading cities Migration A. Impact of the - By 6 century CE nomads from Altai Mountains spread across steppes and became Silk Road dominant pastoral group - Missionary influences exemplify the impacts of foreign customs and beliefs on the Interaction of Cultures peoples along the Silk Road - Military technology from Central Asia spread westward and eastward through military campaigns III. Indian Ocean - Indian Ocean Maritime System: a trade network across the Indian Ocean and the South Trade China Sea Maritime System - Took place in 3 regions 1) South China Sea, 2) east coast of India to islands of Southeast Asia 3) From west coast on India to Persian Gulf - Greek sailor Hippalus made first written record on monsoons and connected trade Technology between Mediterranean and India - Unlike Mediterranean ships, Indian Ocean vessels used triangular sails and went without oars in running before the wind on long ocean stretches - Differences prove people in Indian Ocean developed differently than those in Mediterranean A. Origins of - By 2000 BCE Sumerian records show regular trade between Persian Gulf, Mesopotamia, Interaction of Cultures Contact and Oman, and Indus Valley - People from Southeast Asia migrated to Madagascar and made journey by touching coast Trade on Indian and Southern Arabia - They brought Southeast Asian plants with them and they spread to mainland Africa B. Impact of - Demand for products from coastal lands inspired mariners to make long ocean voyages Interaction of Economic - Indian ocean trading region had high variety of valued goods Systems Indian Ocean - Culture of Indian Ocean and ports in west Indian Ocean areas were often isolated from Trade inland areas due to natural barriers - Eastern Indian and Malaya Peninsula and Indonesia had more hospitable and densely populated ports but none became primarily maritime Interaction of Cultures - In coastal area groups of seafarers had significant social impact despite lack of political power - Since women not taken in ocean trips many sailors married women in local ports so many families were bilingual and bicultural IV. Routes Trade - As Sahara started its drying period travel and number of grassy areas began to shrink, by Across the 300 BCE scarcity of water was restricting travel to a few difficult routes only known to Sahara desert nomads - trans-Saharan trade started small and soon expanded A. Early Saharan -
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