Chapter 9 Notes.docx

4 Pages
113 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History, Technology & Society
Course
HTS 6XXX
Professor
Tom Wang
Semester
Spring

Description
Big Picture/preview theEnvironment-Demographynd Chapter 9: Christian Europe Emerges and disease Migration, Patterns of settlement Technology Rise of Christian Dominance in Europe Developmentand Interactionof Cultures-Belief systems Scienceand technology, arts and architecture. State-building,Expansion,andConflict-Political structures and forms of governance, expansion. Creation,Expansion,andInteractionofEconomic Systems-Agricultural and pastoral production, Trade, Laborsystems. Developmentand TransformationofSocialStructures Gender roles and relations, Family and kinship, Racial and ethnic constructions Socialandeconomicclasses Topic Heading Info Examples of themes and Sub - Byzantine emperors established Christianity as official religion and continued Roman Conflict Headings imperial rule - Having a single ruler with religious authority prevented break up of Eastern empire I. Byzantine - Between 634 and 650 Arab armies destroyed Sasanid Empire and captured Byzantine Empire 600 – Egypt, Syria, and Tunisia - The loss of such populous and prosperous provinces shook empire and it never regained 1200 lost lands A. An Empire - Byzantines succumbed to Muslim conquests in 1453 Beleaguered - At the same time relations with pope and princes of western Europe worsened B. Society and - Imperial authority and prosperity in eastern provinces sheltered Byzantium from Statebuilding and Social economic collapse and population losses Structures Urban Life - As urban elite class shrank importance of the high-ranking aristocrats and rural landowners increased - Women began to be more confined to the house and had to conceal faces - Byzantine emperors continued the Late Roman inclination to set prices, organize grain, and monopolize trade - Other Byzantine cities suffered from intense focus on Constantinople - Byzantine farmers fell back on advancements in farming technologies - Byzantine architectural monuments and artistic creativity manifest themselves in desigInteraction and C. Cultural and ornamentation of churches and monasteries Development of Cultures Achievements - Byzantine religious art strongly influenced painting in western Europe down to the 13 century - In 9 century brothers Cyril and Methodius went on a mission to Slavs of Moravia and preached in the local language creating a new writing system and the Slavic Christians II. Early - The disappearance of imperial legal framework led to the rise of various kings, nobles,tatebuilding Medieval Europe and chieftains - In region after region family-based traditions of the Germanic people which often fit local conditions replaced edicts of Roman empires - Fear and insecurity led communities to seek the protection of local strongmen - In 711 a raiding part of Arabs and Berbers acting under the authority of the Umayyad A. A Time of caliph conquer the Visigoths in Spain and push into French until they are stopped by Insecurity Charlemagne’s grandfather, Charles Martel, in 732 - Military effectiveness led to the Carolingian family to rise from protectors to kings to emperors Conflict - When Charlemagne’s son died Germanic tradition of splitting property among sons led to Treaty of Verdun which split empire into 3 France, Burgundy, and Germany - A new threat to Western Europe appeared in 793 when Vikings attacked and plundered the English coast - Viking ships able to go upriver leading to plundering of inland cities as well -Raiders from Denmark harried the British and French coast - Vikings settled in lands they seized in Normandy - William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy, in 1066 conquered England brought Anglo- Saxon power to an end - Profound economic transformation accompanied the new Germanic political order Economic Systems - Most cities lost populations, roman roads fell into disuse and disrepair B. A Self - Trade across Mediterranean did not entirely stop after Muslim conquests Sufficient Economy - Germanic lords replaced Roman governors leading to more self-sufficiency - Diet in northern countries was beer, lard or butter, and bread with meat - In both north and south self sufficient farming estates known as manors became primary centers of agriculture - Common farmers gave land to large owners in return for political and physical protection - A well appointed manor possessed fields, gardens, grazing lands, fish ponds, a mill, a Social Structures church and workshops - Nobles and families had unlimited power over serfs who belonged to manner - Most peasants in England, France, and Western Germany were unfree serfs attached to lords - Enslavement of prisoners to serve as laborers became a less important object of war C. Early - Europe’s reversion to self-sufficient economy limited freedom and potential for personal Medieval Society achievement of most people - Nobles reaped all benefits in the West - Those who joined war parties included a growing number of horseman - At first fighting on horseback didn’t make a person a lord or landowner but by 10h century constant warfare to protect land rights and claims brought a transformation in the status of a mounted warrior Statebuilding - Feudalism – a land awarded for military service - Medieval Europe kings and lords gave away land to vassals for military support - Germans against the Roman legions equipped with helmets, shields, and swords, spears, or throwing axes and most fought on foot - Stirrups allowed rider to stand in saddle and absorb impact - A grant of land in return for a pledged military service known as fief - Soon vassals able to pass fiefs acquired hereditarily - Kings and Lords might be able to command a service of vassals for only part of the year - A typical medieval realm consisted of lands directly owned by king and administered by royal officers - The king had few financial resources and seldom exercised legal jurisdiction at a local level Social Structures - Noblewomen were seen as heiresses and as candidates for marriage - Marriage alliances affected entire kingdoms - Women could own land and noblewomen sometimes administered husbands estates and peasant women worked alongside menfolk Statebuilding III. The Western - In the west Roman nobles lost control of the papacy and it became a more powerful international office Church - Regional disagreements over church regulations and political disorder posed formidable obstacles to unifying church standards and practices - Calling on secular rulers to recognize pope’s authority led to a rare unity in a time of order and chaos A. Politics and - Like Charlemagne his father Pepin was a strong supporter of the papacy the Church - Relationship between kings and popes tense both thought themselves as ultimate authority - Although pope crowned early Holy Roman emperors this did not show political superiority - Pope had exclusive legal jurisdiction over all clergy and church property - Claims antagonized lords and monarchs who became accustomed to authority over bishops and abbots in their domains - When emperors defied pope’s reforms they were excommunicated - Struggle between popes and emperors continued until 1122 when a compromise was reached in Worms, Germany - In Concordat of Worms, Emperor Henry V renounced right to choose bishops and abbots in return Pope permitted emperor to invest papally appointed bishops and abbots - In
More Less

Related notes for HTS 6XXX

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit