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History, Technology & Society
Tom Wang

Big Picture/preview theEnvironment-Demographynd Chapter 9: Christian Europe Emerges and disease Migration, Patterns of settlement Technology Rise of Christian Dominance in Europe Developmentand Interactionof Cultures-Belief systems Scienceand technology, arts and architecture. State-building,Expansion,andConflict-Political structures and forms of governance, expansion. Creation,Expansion,andInteractionofEconomic Systems-Agricultural and pastoral production, Trade, Laborsystems. Developmentand TransformationofSocialStructures Gender roles and relations, Family and kinship, Racial and ethnic constructions Socialandeconomicclasses Topic Heading Info Examples of themes and Sub - Byzantine emperors established Christianity as official religion and continued Roman Conflict Headings imperial rule - Having a single ruler with religious authority prevented break up of Eastern empire I. Byzantine - Between 634 and 650 Arab armies destroyed Sasanid Empire and captured Byzantine Empire 600 – Egypt, Syria, and Tunisia - The loss of such populous and prosperous provinces shook empire and it never regained 1200 lost lands A. An Empire - Byzantines succumbed to Muslim conquests in 1453 Beleaguered - At the same time relations with pope and princes of western Europe worsened B. Society and - Imperial authority and prosperity in eastern provinces sheltered Byzantium from Statebuilding and Social economic collapse and population losses Structures Urban Life - As urban elite class shrank importance of the high-ranking aristocrats and rural landowners increased - Women began to be more confined to the house and had to conceal faces - Byzantine emperors continued the Late Roman inclination to set prices, organize grain, and monopolize trade - Other Byzantine cities suffered from intense focus on Constantinople - Byzantine farmers fell back on advancements in farming technologies - Byzantine architectural monuments and artistic creativity manifest themselves in desigInteraction and C. Cultural and ornamentation of churches and monasteries Development of Cultures Achievements - Byzantine religious art strongly influenced painting in western Europe down to the 13 century - In 9 century brothers Cyril and Methodius went on a mission to Slavs of Moravia and preached in the local language creating a new writing system and the Slavic Christians II. Early - The disappearance of imperial legal framework led to the rise of various kings, nobles,tatebuilding Medieval Europe and chieftains - In region after region family-based traditions of the Germanic people which often fit local conditions replaced edicts of Roman empires - Fear and insecurity led communities to seek the protection of local strongmen - In 711 a raiding part of Arabs and Berbers acting under the authority of the Umayyad A. A Time of caliph conquer the Visigoths in Spain and push into French until they are stopped by Insecurity Charlemagne’s grandfather, Charles Martel, in 732 - Military effectiveness led to the Carolingian family to rise from protectors to kings to emperors Conflict - When Charlemagne’s son died Germanic tradition of splitting property among sons led to Treaty of Verdun which split empire into 3 France, Burgundy, and Germany - A new threat to Western Europe appeared in 793 when Vikings attacked and plundered the English coast - Viking ships able to go upriver leading to plundering of inland cities as well -Raiders from Denmark harried the British and French coast - Vikings settled in lands they seized in Normandy - William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy, in 1066 conquered England brought Anglo- Saxon power to an end - Profound economic transformation accompanied the new Germanic political order Economic Systems - Most cities lost populations, roman roads fell into disuse and disrepair B. A Self - Trade across Mediterranean did not entirely stop after Muslim conquests Sufficient Economy - Germanic lords replaced Roman governors leading to more self-sufficiency - Diet in northern countries was beer, lard or butter, and bread with meat - In both north and south self sufficient farming estates known as manors became primary centers of agriculture - Common farmers gave land to large owners in return for political and physical protection - A well appointed manor possessed fields, gardens, grazing lands, fish ponds, a mill, a Social Structures church and workshops - Nobles and families had unlimited power over serfs who belonged to manner - Most peasants in England, France, and Western Germany were unfree serfs attached to lords - Enslavement of prisoners to serve as laborers became a less important object of war C. Early - Europe’s reversion to self-sufficient economy limited freedom and potential for personal Medieval Society achievement of most people - Nobles reaped all benefits in the West - Those who joined war parties included a growing number of horseman - At first fighting on horseback didn’t make a person a lord or landowner but by 10h century constant warfare to protect land rights and claims brought a transformation in the status of a mounted warrior Statebuilding - Feudalism – a land awarded for military service - Medieval Europe kings and lords gave away land to vassals for military support - Germans against the Roman legions equipped with helmets, shields, and swords, spears, or throwing axes and most fought on foot - Stirrups allowed rider to stand in saddle and absorb impact - A grant of land in return for a pledged military service known as fief - Soon vassals able to pass fiefs acquired hereditarily - Kings and Lords might be able to command a service of vassals for only part of the year - A typical medieval realm consisted of lands directly owned by king and administered by royal officers - The king had few financial resources and seldom exercised legal jurisdiction at a local level Social Structures - Noblewomen were seen as heiresses and as candidates for marriage - Marriage alliances affected entire kingdoms - Women could own land and noblewomen sometimes administered husbands estates and peasant women worked alongside menfolk Statebuilding III. The Western - In the west Roman nobles lost control of the papacy and it became a more powerful international office Church - Regional disagreements over church regulations and political disorder posed formidable obstacles to unifying church standards and practices - Calling on secular rulers to recognize pope’s authority led to a rare unity in a time of order and chaos A. Politics and - Like Charlemagne his father Pepin was a strong supporter of the papacy the Church - Relationship between kings and popes tense both thought themselves as ultimate authority - Although pope crowned early Holy Roman emperors this did not show political superiority - Pope had exclusive legal jurisdiction over all clergy and church property - Claims antagonized lords and monarchs who became accustomed to authority over bishops and abbots in their domains - When emperors defied pope’s reforms they were excommunicated - Struggle between popes and emperors continued until 1122 when a compromise was reached in Worms, Germany - In Concordat of Worms, Emperor Henry V renounced right to choose bishops and abbots in return Pope permitted emperor to invest papally appointed bishops and abbots - In
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