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Chapter 9

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PSYC 1101

Ch. 9 Intelligence and IQ Testing I. What is Intelligence? - Edwin Boring o Intelligence is whatever intelligence tests measure o Unfortunately, this answer to the question of what intelligence actually is sidesteps the entire question Intelligence as Sensory Capacity: Out of Sight, Out of Mind - Sir Francis Galton o Cousin of Charles Darwin o Hypothesis: Intelligence is the by-product of sensory capacity  Most knowledge comes from the senses, especially vision and hearing  People with better senses must acquire more knowledge than others o Galton set up a laboratory in which he used 17 sensory tests on thousands of visitors in order to draw a correlation between knowledge and sensory capacity o The hypothesis, however, was falsified when tests showed that having one heightened sense had nothing to do with the others Intelligence as Abstract Thinking - The French government developed the first “intelligence test” in 1905 to distinguish slow learners from non-slow learners - The tests included higher mental processes - The test was developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon o Nearly all intelligence tests since then have followed their lead - Intelligence Theorists now agree that intelligence has something to do with abstract thinking o The capacity to understand hypothetical concepts, rather than concepts in the here- and-now o Experts agree that intelligence consists of the abilities to:  Reason abstractly  Lear to adapt to new environmental circumstances  Acquire knowledge  Benefit from experience o Definitions of intelligence can vary with culture Intelligence as General versus Specific Abilities - All of Binet and Simon’s tests had something in common: positive correlations - Charles Spearman o Decided to investigate this phenomenon of positive correlations o Hypothesized a single shared factor across all these aspects – general intelligence o All tests are positively correlated because they show the influence of general intelligence o The differences in general intelligence or g was, to Spearman, a difference in the simple power of different brains - This idea has led to massive divisions in the field of measuring intelligence because it simply states that some people are plain smarter than others - Specific Abilities o Spearman also hypothesized the existence of s – how well we perform on certain tests depends not only on g but also on our particular skills in narrow domains Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence - Louis Thurstone o Some intelligence tests items relate more highly to each other than do other items o They form clumps which correspond to different intellectual capacities - Raymond Cattell and John Horn distinguished fluid from crystallized intelligence - Fluid Intelligence o The capacity to learn new ways of solving problems o We rely on fluid intelligence when we first attempt to solve a puzzle - Crystallized Intelligence o The accumulated knowledge we acquire over time o Used to answer factual questions, etc. - Knowledge from newly learned tasks “flows” into our long term memories before “crystallizing” into lasting knowledge - Differences between Fluid and Crystallized o Fluid Abilities  More likely to decline with age  More related to g o Crystallized Abilities  More likely to actually increase with age  Moderately and positively related to a personality trait known as openness to experience  People with “openness to experience” tend to be imaginative, intellectually curious, and excited about new ideas, places, and things Multiple Intelligences: Different Ways of Being Smart - Multiple Intelligences: entirely different domains of intellectual skill o The concept of g is wrong or at least partially wrong o There are many ways of being smart - Frames of Mind o Howard Gardner  Theory of multiple intelligences  Numerous “frames of mind” (different ways of thinking) about the world  Each frame of mind has its own independent intelligence o Gardner maintained that scientists must be able to isolate different intelligences in people with brain damage o Different intelligences are proofs of evolution; they have helped organisms survive different conditions o Gardner proposed 8 types of Intelligence  Linguistic – speaking/writing  Logical -mathematical- logic and math skills to solve problems  Spatial – thinking/reasoning about objects in 3D space  Musical – perform, understand, and enjoy music  Bodily-kinesthetic – manipulating body in sports, dance, etc.  Interpersonal – understand and interact with others  Intrapersonal – understand and possess insight into self  Naturalistic – recognize, identify, and understand living things o Hypothesized a 9 intelligence: existential intelligence  The ability to grasp deep philosophical ideas - Triarchic Model o Robert Stenberg argued for 3 intelligences  Analytic  The ability to reason logically  Book smarts  Necessary for standardized tests, etc.  Practical  “tacit intelligence”  Real world problem solving  Street smarts  The capacity to understand others  Creative Intelligence  Creativity  The ability to come up with novel and effective answers to questions Biological Bases of Intelligence - Intelligence and Brain Structure and Function o Brain size is not correlated with intelligence within a species o Brain volume, however, correlates positively with intelligence o There is no clear correlation between brain size and overall IQ - Intelligence and Reaction Time o People with higher intelligence have a faster reaction time than those with lower intelligence - Intelligence and Memory o Working memory tends to have a positive correlation to intelligence - Location of Intelligence o Most likely located near/in pre-frontal cortex II. Intelligence Testing: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly How We Calculate IQ - Standford Binet IQ Test o First published in 1916 o Used tests in the vein of Binet and Simon – vocab, memory for pictures, naming of familiar objects, repeating sentences, following commands, etc. o Created by Lewis Terman  Established a set of norms in the general population along which we can compare scores - Wilhelm Stern o Invented the formula for the intelligence quotient (IQ) o Divide mental age by chronological age and multiply the resulting answer by 100  Mental age is the age of the person corresponding to the person’s average performance on an intelligence test o Modern Intelligence tests rely on deviation IQ – expresses a person’s IQ relative to the norms for his/her age group The Eugenics Movement: Misuses and Abuses of IQ Testing - Henry Goddard o Translated the Simon & Binet Test into English in 1908 o IQ testing boomed in the US o IQ tests in English were given to new immigrants who barely spoke English o The tests were given to adults without being configured – everyone tended to test in the mental retardation range - Eugenics o Coined by Sir Francis Galton o The effort to improve a population’s genetic stock by encouraging people with good genes to reproduce and vice-versa - Abuses o US passed immigration laws that limited those with low IQ o 33 states passed laws requiring the sterilization of low-IQ individuals  The Supreme Court upheld these sterilizations in the 1927 case of Buck v. Bell IQ Testing Today - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale o Overall IQ o Verbal Comprehension o Perceptual Reasoning o Working Memory o Processing Speed - Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Wechsler
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