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Chapter 6

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PSYC 1101

Ch. 6 – Learning Classical Conditioning - Pavlov’s Dog o Pavlovian Conditioning - Unconditional Stimulus (UCS) o An event that regularly elicits a certain response without having been learned - Unconditional Response (Reflex) o Response elicited by UCS - Conditional Stimulus (CS) o Previously neutral stimulus; elicited no response beyond orienting response - Conditional Response (CR) o Response to CS - The Conditional Response does not equal the unconditional response; they are quantitatively and qualitatively different Principles of Classical Conditioning - Acquisition o We gradually learn (acquire) the Conditional Response o As the Conditional and Unconditional Stimuli are paired closer and closer, the Conditional Response gets stronger - Extinction o The Conditional Response decreases in magnitude and eventually disappears when the Conditional Stimulus is presented without the Unconditional Stimulus - Spontaneous Recovery o A seemingly extinct Conditional Response reappears if the Conditional Stimulus is presented again o Renewal Effect: extinguish a response in a setting different from the one in which it was originally acquired; when the animal is placed in the original setting, the extinguished response reappears - Stimulus Generalization o Conditional Stimuli which are similar but not identical to the original CS elicit a similar Conditional Response - Stimulus Discrimination o We exhibit a less pronounced Conditional Response to Conditional Stimuli that differ from the original CS o Ex. We don’t panic as much watching a shark attack on tv as seeing one in real life. Higher-Order Conditioning - The process by which organisms develop classically conditioned responses to CS’s that later become associated with the original CS - Ex. Pavlov’s dog salivates when hearing a tone. A circle is correlated with that tone, the dog beings to salivate when seeing the circle as well. Applications of Classical Conditioning - Advertising o Advertisers pair sights and sounds with messages in order to condition the public and elicit positive emotions - Fears and Phobias o John B. Watson (Behaviorism)  Used 9 month old infant, Little Albert  Scared the child every time he played with a white rat  Little Albert began to show a negative CR to the white rat; it had now become a CS - Fetishes o Sexual attraction to nonliving things - Disgust Reactions o Ex. Eating a piece of fudge shaped like a turd is gross o Paul Rozin  Asked people to drink from 2 glasses with the same contents but labeled differently to gauge reactions Operant Conditioning - Learning controlled by the consequences of the organism’s behavior; the behavior is shaped by the reward Distinguishing Operant Conditioning from Classical Conditioning - 1. In Classical Conditioning, the organism’s response is elicited (pulled out) of the organism by the Unconditional Stimulus and later the Conditional Stimulus. The response is automatic. In Operant Conditioning, the organism’s response is emitted – it is voluntary. - 2. In Classical Conditioning, the animal’s reward is independent of what it does (ex. Pavlov gave the dogs meat powder whether they salivated or not). In Operant Conditioning, the reward is dependent on the animal’s actions. It is, quite simply, a reward. - 3. In Classical Conditioning, the organism’s response depends on the autonomic nervous system. In Operant Conditionin
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