● Defined as the characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling of an individual.
Differences in personality are concerned with prior events and anticipated events that
● Classification of Personality Approach. Psychoanalysis (Freud) - used clinical
experience to develop comprehensive theory of personality. His ToP proposed that
childhood sexuality and unconscious motivation in뢓í»¼uence personality. Both a ToP and a
therapy method. Used to treat psychological disorders by exposing and interpreting
unconscious tensions. Chain of thoughts lead to painful, unconscious memories.
Retrieving and releasing these memories cause patients to feel better. Nothing is an
accident. Freud’s structure of personality: Id (unconscious), ego (unconscious,
preconscious, conscious), superego (unconscious, preconscious, conscious). Id : Present
from birth operates according to the pleasure principle. Primitive focus (basic needs and
wants). 2 competing instincts - life (sexual), death (aggressive). Completely unconscious.
Superego: Moral conscience that develops around age 5. Stores and enforces rules (inner
voice that tells you to not do something or that tells u something is wrong). Subsystems
of superego: ego ideal = parents’ approve/value. Conscience = parents’ disapproval. Ego:
Operates according to reality. Arises in first 3 years of life. Mediates between id and
superego. Tl;dr id is the 2 yr old inside of you, ego is more realistic and mediates
between the id and superego, superego is idealistic af.
● Defense mechanisms: Repression - Blocking threatening ideas, memories, emotions
from consciousness. Projection - Attributing repressed feelings to someone else.
Displacement - targeting your emotions at people or things that are not the real object of
emotion; sublimation is acting out socially unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable
way. Reaction formation - When a feeling or belief that causes anxiety is transformed
into the opposite feeling or belief in our consciousness. Regression - Returning to a
previous stage of development. Denial - Refusing to admit something unpleasant or that
something that provokes anxiety is happening. Examples: Repress You can't remember
your father's funeral. Proj You get really mad at your husband but scream that he's the one mad at you. Displacement When you get mad at your sister, you break your drinking
glass by throwing it against the wall. Reaction formation When you say you're not angry
when you really are. Regression You and your roommate have get into an argument so
you stomp o뢓í»¼ into another room and pout. Den