PSYC 1101 Chapter 4: Personality
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1101
Professor
Verhaeghen
Semester
Fall

Description
Decisionmaking  ● We have 2  decision  making  systems:  unconscious,  emotional,  jumps to  conclusions, and  logical,  deliberative,  conscious,  slow and  requires time  ● We have  decision  fatigue  (get  tired after  making lots of  decisions).  Making  choices  impairs  subsequent  self­control.  We have a limited  resource  account of  decision  making,  self­regulation, and active  initiative.  Hungry  judges  make  harsher  sentences, we get  tired  car­shopping because there are so  many  cars  ● We deal w/  uncertainties by  applying mental  shortcuts:  heuristics  (representativeness,  availability,  anchoring) Representativeness : perception of  randomness  ‘if the  population  is  random, the  sample should not have  structure’  Anything  truly human is  inherently  variable and  inconsistent  ● One  unexpected  measurement  error is  regression to the  mean.  Variable that is  extreme on  1st  measurement will  tend to get closer to the  center on a  linear  measurement. Hot  Hand  Phenomenon: basketball  players that  scored high  first  ended up  scoring lower in  later  games.  Can also explain  ‘perverse  contingencies’ - punishment can  lead to  improvement,  praise to  bad  performance. Nemeroff &  Ronzin  (1989): you are what you  eat. People are  told they either  hunt  turtles for  shells or  meat, and  boars for  tusks or  meat.  Boar­eaters  were more  irritable and  aggressive,  turtle  eaters thought to  live longer and  swim  better.  Frank &  Gilovich  (1988):  teams that  wore  black  uniforms were  perceived to be more  aggressive and also had  increased  penalty  minutes than  teams in  light  uniforms.  Black­uniform  teams also  liked to  choose more aggressive  competitors. Availability:    how  likely something is  depends on  how  fast you can come up w  examples.  Influenced by  familiarity and  vividness.  Slovic,  Fischhoff &  Lichenstein  (1976): people  underestimated  the  frequency of  causes of  death. Reyes,  Thompson,  Bower  (1980):    mock  court  case.  Two description of the  accident:  pallid and  vivid.  After  48  hours,  hearing both  types, the  jury  decided the  accused was  guilty after  hearing the  vivid  story. Borgida &  Nisbett  (1977): prospective  psych  majors were more likely to take a  recommended  class if  they  spoke with a  face to  face  panel  rather than reading  stat  summaries about them  Of  many  events we think of the  gist  + the  ending.  Happy  ending makes  us think back to it more  fondly Khaneman,  Frederickson,  Schreiber  1993:    More  Pain  Preferred  To  Less.  hand  in  cold  water, 1 trial was longer but  ended w/  warm water. People thought the longer  trial  was less  painful. Anchoring: You  make an  estimate & then you  adjust  it,  typically  underadjust.  We also  frame, and have  overconfidence. Graham et al.  (2003) your  sex  life  is much more  exciting in  retrospect  (contact is lower than you  think)  ● Framing:  backgro
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