CHM 115 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Cookie Dough, Maple Syrup, Human Eye

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8 Feb 2017
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Chemistry Chapter 1 Notes:
1.1
Chemistry: the study of composition, properties, and interactions of matter. Chemistry also
occurs whenever someone is involved in changes in matter or in conditions that may lead to such
changes
Based on OBSERVATION and EXPERIMENTATION
Hypothesis: a tentative explanation of observations that acts as a guide for gathering and
checking information
Law: summarizes a vast number of experimental observations, and describe or predict some
facet of the natural world
Theory: a well-substantiated, comprehensive, testable explanations of particular aspects of
nature
Theories can be modified
Macroscopic Domain: the realm of everyday things that are large enough to be sensed directly
by human sight or touch
Microscopic Domain: the realm of atoms and molecules- mostly too small to be seen with even
a microscope
Symbolic Domain: contains the specialized language used to represent components of the macro
and microscopic domains
Chemical symbols, formulas, abbreviations, and equations
One of the features that makes chemistry so fascinating is the use of a domain that must be
imagined to explain behavior in a domain that can be observed
i.e. Water
Macro: liquid, solid, or gas phases of water
Micro: the description of water as 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom (also the explanation of
freezing and boiling in terms of attractions between molecules)
Symbolic: formula H2O and (g) (s) and (l)
1.2
Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass
Solids, liquids, and gases are matter
Solid: rigid and has a definite shape
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Liquid: flows and takes the shape of the container
Gas: takes both the shape and volume of the container
Plasma: gaseous state of matter that contains appreciable numbers of electrically charged
particles
Found in high temperature environments such as lightning, TV screens, special analytical
instruments for metals
Matter can also have properties of more than one state when it is a mixture
Clouds or Sand (poured as a liquid but composed of small grains)
Mass: measure of the amount of matter in it
Measure the force it takes to accelerate the object
A more common way to determine the mass is to use a balance to compare its mass with
a standard mass
Weight: the force that gravity exerts on an object
Force is directly proportional to the mass of the object
Weight changes the as the force of gravity changes but its mass remains the same
Law of Conservation of Matter: There is no detectable change in the total quantity of matter
present when matter converts from one type to another (a chemical change) or changes its states
(a physical change)
i.e. brewing of beer and the operation of batteries
Outside of the laboratory we seldom collect all of the material that is produced during a
particular conversion
Atom: the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element and can enter
into a chemical combination
Leucippus and Democritus first suggested that matter was composed of atoms (5th Century BCE)
John Dalton supported this hypothesis with quantitative measurements (19th Century)
An atom is light that its mass is difficult to imagine
Helium, Neon, and Argon are a few elements that consists of a collection of individual atoms
that move about independently of one another
Molecule: consists of two or more atoms joined by strong forces (chemical bonds)
i.e. 6 pack of soda
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