BISC 1111 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5.1-5.5: Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, Dehydration Reaction

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Sam Mohebban 5.1-5.5 Notes Exam 1
1
Most important large molecules found in every living thing
o Carbohydrates
o Lipids
o Proteins
o Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules- Huge molecules on the alpha molecular scale
o Carbohydrates
o Proteins
o Nucleic Acids
Large biological molecules exhibit unique emergent properties arising from the orderly
arrangement of their atoms
5.1
Polymers- A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by
covalent bonds. Like a train consists of a chain of cars.
o From the Greek polys, many, and meros, part
o Found in three of the four classes of life’s organic compounds
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Monomers- Repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer
o Smaller molecules
o From the Greek monos, single
Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers
o Enzymes- Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions and facilitate the
breakdown of polymers in cells.
o Dehydration reaction- when monomers are connected by a reaction in which two
molecules are covalently bonded to each other, with the loss of a water molecule
One monomer provides a hydroxyl group (--OH), while the other provides a
hydrogen (--H).
This reaction is repeated as monomers are added to the chain, making a polymer
o Hydrolysis- process that disassembles polymers, opposite of dehydration reaction.
Means water breakage (from the Greek hydro, water, and lysis, break)
Bond between monomers is broken by the addition of a water molecule, with a
hydrogen from water attaching to one monomer and the hydroxyl group attaching
to the other.
Digestion is an example of natural hydrolysis in our bodies
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Sam Mohebban 5.1-5.5 Notes Exam 1
2
Bulk of organic material in our food is too large for our cells, therefore
there are enzymes within our digestive tract that speed up hydrolysis
These cells can then use dehydration reactions to assemble the monomers
into new polymers that can perform specific
functions required by the cell
5.2
Molecular structure and function can be grouped by class
Four major classes of large biological molecules
Carbohydrates- include sugars and polymers of sugars
o Monosaccharides- simplest are the (simple sugars)
Monomers from which more complex carbohydrates are built
o Disaccharides- double sugars consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a covalent
bond.
o Polysaccharides- Carbohydrate macromolecules composed of many sugar building
blocks
Sugars
o Monosaccharides
From Greek monos, single, and sacchar, sugar
Generally, have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH2O.
Glucose (C6H12O6) is the most common monosaccharide and essential in the
chemistry of life
Molecule has a carbonyl group (CO) and multiple hydroxyl groups (--
OH) [trademarks of sugar]
o Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, a sugar is
either an aldose (aldehyde sugar) or ketose (ketone sugar)
Glucose in an aldose
Fructose (isomer of glucose) is a ketose
Monosaccharides are major nutrients for cells.
Cellular Respiration- cells extract energy from glucose molecules by
breaking them down in a series of reaction
**See diagram below**
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Sam Mohebban 5.1-5.5 Notes Exam 1
3
o Disaccharides
Consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glyosidic linkage
Glyosidic linkage- a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a
dehydration reaction.
Maltose is a disaccharide formed by the linking of two molecules of glucose
Most prevalent disaccharide is sucrose (table sugar)
Monomers are glucose and fructose
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