PSYC 2015 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Central Nervous System, Inferior Colliculus, Superior Colliculus

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8 Feb 2017
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Mohit Singh
Bio Psych
Ch 3 Notes
Central Nervous system (CNS) = Brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous system (PNS) = connects the brain and the spinal cord to
the rest of the body
o Somatic System= consists of the axons conveying messages from the
sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to the muscles.
o Autonomic System= controls, heart, intestines, and other organs.
Coronal plane = Brain as seen from the front
Sagittal plane= Shows the Brain from the side
Horizontal plane= shows brain structures as seen from above
Spinal Cord
Is part of the CNS within the spinal column.
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons are in clusters of neurons outside the spinal
cord, called the Dorsal Root Ganglia
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Neuron cluster outside CNS = Ganglion
Neuron cluster inside the CNS = Nucleus
Many neurons from the gray matter of the spinal cord send axons to the brain or
to other parts of the spinal cord through the white matter, containing myelinated
axons.
Autonomic Nervous System
Consists of neurons that receive information from and send commands to the
heart, intestines and other organs.
Sympathetic Nervous system Flight or Fight
o Network of nerves that prepare the organs for vigorous activity, consists
of chains of ganglia just to the right and left of the spinal cord
o Increase breathing and heart rate, and decrease digestive activity.
o Sweat glands, adrenal glands, muscles that constrict blood vessels, and
the muscles that erect the hairs of the skin have sympathetic input but no
parasympathetic input.
Parasympathetic Nervous System Rest of Digest
o Consists of cranial nerves and nerves from the sacral spinal cord.
o Decreases heart rate, increases digestive rate, and promotes sexual
arousal.
Hindbrain
Consists of medulla, pons, and cerebellum
Brainstem= medulla, pons, midbrain, and central structures of the forebrain.
Medulla= just above the spinal cord
o Controls vital reflexes through the cranial nerves (Breathing, heart rate,
vomiting, salivation, coughing, and sneezing.)
o Damage to the medulla is frequently fatal.
Pons= connects left and right hemispheres of the brain
Cerebellum= control of movement and balance and coordination
o Large hindbrain structure with many deep folds.
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Midbrain
Starts in the middle of the brain
Tectum= Roof of midbrain
o Swellings on each side of the tectum are the superior colliculus and the
inferior colliculus.
Both are important for sensory processing.
o Inferior colliculus for hearing
o Superior colliculus for vision
Tegmentum= lies under the tectum
Substantia nigra = gives rise to a dopamine-containing pathway that facilitates
readiness for movement.
Forebrain
Consists of 2 cerebral hemispheres, one on the left and one on the right.
Outer portion is the cerebral cortex
Limbic system forms a border around the brainstem.
Limbic system important for motivations and emotions, such as eating,
drinking, sexual activity anxiety and aggression.
o Includes the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and
cingulated gyrus of the cerebral cortex.
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