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Chapter Taylor

Economics 1776 Chapter Notes - Chapter Taylor: Asteroid Family, Moral Agency


Department
Economics
Course Code
Economics 1776
Professor
Professor Friedman
Chapter
Taylor

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In#consequence#of#Adam's#sin,#he#and#his#sin#were#"adjudged#to#
labour,#sorrow#and#death,"#and#"a#new#dispensation,#abounding#
with#grace,#was#erected#in#a#Redeemer"
§
Taylor:#I#see#no#sufficient#grounds#for#believing#more#than#this#
"Let#every#man#judge#freely,#soberly,#and#impartially"#(73)
Taylor:#moral#circumstances:#the#present#state#of#religion#and#virtue#in#the#
world
"so#far#as#we#can#judge#from#history,#or#what#we#know#at#present,#the#
greatest#part#of#mankind#have#been,#and#still#are,#very#corrupt,#though#not#
equally#so#in#every#age#and#place"#(74)
According#to#the#scheme#we#are#considering,#a#corrupt#nature#will,#to#the#
end#of#the#world,#remain#in#every#man#so#long#as#he#liveth
If#by#moral#circumstances,#we#mean#the#provision#and#means#God#
hath#furnished#for#our#spiritual#improvement,#then#we#may#truly#
conclude#that#with#regard#to#the#provision#and#means#which#God#
hath#supplied#in#Christ,#our#moral#circumstances#are#more#
advantageous#for#spiritual#improvement#than#Adam's#were#before#
he#sinned#(74)
§
Smith#says#that#he#doesn't#remember#anywhere#in#the#bible#that#
claims#that#the#capacities#of#our#minds#are#either#better#or#worse,#
larger#or#narrower#than#Adam's#was.#Nor#does#he#know#how#to#
make#a#judgement#on#this#case,#but#by#comparing#the#acts#which#
Adam#performed#in#his#state#of#innocence,#with#what#men#have#
since#been#capable#of#(75)
§
But,#if#by#moral#circumstances#we#mean#moral#abilities# or#mental#powers,#
the#question#will#be,#whether#our#faculties#be#now#as#sound#and#fit#for#
right#action,#as#Adam's#were#before#he#sinned?
Are#we#not#in#worse#moral#circumstances#than#Adam#was?
First#act#was#his#dressing#or#keeping#the#garden#of#Eden
Next#was#his#giving#names#to#all#the#creatures
He#said#no,#so#God#brought#his#wife#to#him,#Eve,#who#was#taken#out#
of#him
§
Next#he#was#asked#if#any#was#fit#to#be#his#companion#and#partner#in#life
Adam's#next#act#was#eating#the#forbidden#fruit#-- a#violation#of#the#express#
command#and#covenant#of#God,#whereby#he#knew#he#made#himself#liable#
to#the#punishment#of#death
Smith#discusses#Adam's#actions
These#are#all#the#acts#of#Adam#by#which#we#can#form#any#ideas#of#his#natural#
capacities,#or#moral#abilities# before#his#transgression
"The#Assembly#of#Divines#affirm#that#Adam#was#created#after#God's#own#
image#in#knowledge,#righteousness,#and#holiness,#having#the#law#of#God#
written#in#his#heart#and#power#to#fulfil#it"#(75)
Answer:#"So#God#created#man#in#his#own#image,#in#the#image#of#God#
created#he#him"#(76)
Men#in#Noah#and#Adam's#days#were#made#in#the#image#of#God,#and#also#
they#were#to#be#made#in#the#same#image#to#the#end#of#the#world
So,#Gen#v.#3#proves#that#if#Adam#was#made#in#the#image#of#God,#then#his#
posterity#also#was#made#in#the#same#image
Object#II
Our#natural#faculties#are#made#by#an#act#of#God's#absolute#power,#
without#our#knowledge,#concurrency,#or#consent
§
But#moral#virtue#or#holiness,#in#its#very#nature#implieth#the#choice#
and#consent#of#a#moral#agent,#without#which#it#cannot#be#virtue#or#
holiness
§
God#indeed#can,#and#undoubtedly#doth,#assist##and#direct#us#in#this#
choice#and#consent#in#ways#and#degrees,#which#we#are#not#able#to#
determine#-- but#still#holiness#must#be#the#choice#of#our#own#minds
§
For$how$much$soever$we$are$assisted$in$choosing,$it$must$be$our$
own$act$and$deed,$or$it$cannot$be$our$virtue$and$holiness$(79)
§
So….$"however$God$may$provide$and$apply$means$to$engage$our$
wills$to$the$observance$of$what$is$right$and$true,$it$is,$I$think,$
demonstration,$that$we$cannot,$as$moral$agents,$observe$what$is$
right$and$true,$or$be$righteous$and$holy,$without$our$own$free$and$
explicit$choice"$(79)
§
"For$righteousness$is$the$right$use$and$application$of$our$powers,$
consequently$our$powers$must$not$only$exist,$but$also$be$used$and$
applied$before$we$can$be$righteous"$(79)
§
Possibly#the#apostle#may#allude#to#Adam's#being#made#in#the#image#of#
God,#but#it#cannot#follow#that#Adam#was#originally#created#in#this#image#of#
God#for#a#ver#good#reason#-- because#this#image,#or#in#the#habits#of#virtue#
and#holiness,#cannot#be#created#in#the#same#manner#as#our#natural#
faculties
Smith#speaks#of#Gentiles,#and#claims#that#Gentiles#have#no#written#
law#but#for#all#they#have,#they#are#under#a#rule#of#life,#and#this#rule#is#
their#understanding#and#reason#("And#hereby#do#evidence,#that#the#
work#of#the#law,#the#good#which#the#law#requireth,#and#the#evil#it#
condemns,#is#written#in#their#hearts"#(80)
§
Apostle's#arguments:#the#light#of#nature,#common#reason#and#
understanding,#is#a#law,#a#rule#of#right#action#to#all#mankind,#that#all#
men#ought#to#follow#it,#and#that,#if#they#do#not,#they#are#answerable#
to#God
§
From#all#this#it#seems#evident,#that#when#God#is#said#to#have#created#man#
in#his#own#image#and#likeness,#it#must#be#understood#of#the#rational#
faculties#of#his#mid,#or#the#dominion#he#had#over#the#inferior#creatures,#
whereby#he#bore#the#nearest#resemblance#to#God#of#any#such#beings#in#
this#world:#and#not#of#holiness#and#righteousness,#which#is#a#right#use#of#
our#spiritual#faculties;#because#such#an#use#of#them#could#not#be#till# after#
they#were#created#(80)
Does#all#this#prove#that#righteousness#and#true#holiness#was#the#image#of#God#in#
which#Adam#was#made?
God#had#made#man,#man#collectively,#or#mankind,#upright
God#had#given#to#man,#not#only#to#Adam,#reason#and#understanding#to#
distinguish#between#good#and#evil,#to#choose#the#one,#and#refuse#the#
other
"Lo,#this#only#have#I#found,#that#God#hath#made#man#upright,#but#they#have#
sought#out#many#inventions"#(81)
"These#two#last#texts#are#brought#in#the#assemblies#larger# catechism,#to#prove,#
that#our#first#parents#had#the#law#of#God#written#in#their#hearts,#and#power#to#
fulfil#it,#in#opposition#to#their#posterity,#who#want#that#righteousness#wherein#
they#are#supposed#to#have#been#created,#and#whose#nature#is#corrupted"#(82)
That#we#are#born#into#the#world#capable#of#sin#and#wickedness#is#true#[…]#
but#all#this#doth#not#amount#to#a#naturally#propensity#to#sin#[]#for,#I#
presume,#by#a#natural#propensity,#is#meant,#a#necessary#inclination#to#sin,#
or#that#we#are#necessarily#sinful#from#the#original#bent#and#bias#of#our#
natural#powers,#which#must#be#false
But#we#derive#from#Adam#a#moral#taint#and#infection,#whereby#we#have#a#
natural#propensity#to#sin
That$this$taint$runs$like$a$stream$from$generation$to$generation,$and$is$
transmitted$among$ourselves$form$one$to$another,$while$God$looks$on,$
seeth$the$thing$done,$and$hateth$and$curseth$us$for$it$(82)
For#nature#cannot#be#morally#corrupted,#but#by#the#will,#the#depraved#
choice#of#a#moral#agent.#Neither#can#any#corrupt#my#nature,#or#make#me#
wicked,#but#I#myself#(83)
"in$short,$it$is$absurd$to$say,$the$body$is$polluted$separate$from$the$soul.$
It$is$absurd$to$say$an$infectious$quality,$or$anything$else,$is$derived$from$
Adam$to$every$human$body,$independent$of$the$will$and$operation$of$
God:$and$to$say,$it$is$by$his$will$and$operation,$is$plainly$to$make$him$the$
author$of$the$pollution"$(84)
"I$do$not$know$that$we$derive$anything$at$all$from$Adam,$but$by$the$will$and$
operation$of$God,$no$more$than$the$acorn$deriveth$from$the$oak"
Taylor'Notes'(1740)
Tuesday,# October# 3,#2017
8:25#PM
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