GOV 97 Chapter Notes - Chapter Putnam: Apulia, Emilia-Romagna, Vocational Education

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"This&book&aims&to&contribute&to&our&understanding&of&the&performance&of&
democratic&institutions"&(3).
Borders&to&new&governments&corresponded&to&territories&of&historic&
regions&of&the&peninsula
Since&Italy's&unification,&administrative&structure&has&been&highly&
centralized
Local&officials&closely&controlled&by&prefects&reporting&directly&to&Rome
No&level&of&government&corresponding&to&the&regions&has&ever&existed
Difficulty&in&communicating&with&region&bureaucrats&(Puglia&regional&
government)
Receptionist&directs&visitors&to&proper&offices
§
Relevant&officials&use&computerized&data&based&on&regional&
problems&and&policies
§
Bologna's&central&plaza&has&nightly&debates&among&groups&of&citizens&
and&political&activists&that&are&echoed&by&the&regional&council&(6)
§
Repertory&theaters&and&vocational&training&sites
"Emilian&government&has&progressed&from&words&to&deeds"&(6)
§
Government&in&Bologna&appears&like&a&high-tech&firm
"In&the&early&1970's&the&primary&responsibility&for&addressing&these&diverse&
problems&of&public&health&and&safety,&along&with&much&else&of&concern&to&
ordinary&Italians,&was&suddenly&transferred&from&the&national&administration&to&
a&newly&created&set&of&elected&regional&governments"&(4)
"endowed&with&essentially&identical&constitutional&structures&and&
mandates&(6)
1976-77&-- regions&granted&authority&over&a&wide&range&of&public&issues
Five&regions&were&border&areas&that&had&been&threatened&by&
separatist&sentiment&at&the&end&of&WWII
§
Contrasting&these&15&"ordinary"&regions,&5&"special"&regions&were&
established&with&greater&constitutionally&guaranteed&powers
15&new&regional&governments&established&simultaneously&in&1970
By&the&beginning&of&1990's,&the&new&governments&were&spending&1/10&of&Italy's&
GDP
Urban&affairs,&
Agriculture
Housing
Hospitals&and&health&services
Public&works
Vocational&education
Economic&development
All&regional&governments&had&gained&the&following&responsibilities:
"Socially&and&economically,&some&regions,&&such&as&Pietrapertosa's&Basilicata,&
ranked&with&countries&of&the&Third&World,&whereas&others,&such&as&Seveso's&
Lombardia,&were&already&becoming&post-industrial
Veneto&ardently&Catholic
§
Others&had&been&transformed&by&massive&waves&of&
migration&and&social&change&that&swept&across&Italy&
during&il&boom&of&the&1950's&and&60's
®
Some&regions&had&inherited&patroniclient&politics&more&or&less&
intact&from&the&feudal&past
Emilia-Romagna&controlled&by&Communists&since&1945
§
Veneto&and&Emilia-Romagna:&neighboring&regions&with&similar&economic&
profiles&in&1970
Differences&of&political&tradition
Two&most&basic&questions&of&political& science:&who&governs&and&how&well?
"'The&key&characteristic&of&a&democracy&is&the&continuing&
responsiveness&of&the&government&to&the&preferences&of&its&
citizens'"&(63)
§
"Need&to&evaluate&both&its&responsiveness&to&its&constituents&and&its&
efficiency&in&conducting&the&public's&business"&(63)
A&good&democratic&government&not&only&considers&the&demands&of&its&
citizenry&(responsive)&&but&also&acts&efficaciously&upon&these&demands&
(effective)&(63)
Evaluating&a&representative&government
Comprehensive
Internally&Consistent
Reliable
Correspond&to&the&objectives&and&evaluations&of&the&institution's&
protagonists&and&constituents
Any&serious&measurement&of&government&performance&must&meet&four&severe&
tests:
"an&institution's&effectiveness&depends,&first&of&all,&on&how&well&it&manages&
its&essential&internal&affairs"&(65)
Studying&the&performance&of&governments&means&studying&policies&and&
programs&as&well
"+",-&(./'(&0#-/#%,.1(.2(3.0&'14&1%(4/5%(4&#5/'&(#6%,.157(1.%(8/5%(
9.':57(9&(4/5%(;&(6#'&2/-(1.%(%.(3,0&(3.0&'14&1%5(6'&:,%(<.'(;-#4&=(2.'(
4#%%&'5(;&>.1:(%"&,'(6.1%'.-?(@1(%"&(-#13/#3&(.2($.-,6>(#1#->5,57(9&(
9#1%(%.(4&#5/'&(A./%$/%5A('#%"&'(%"#1(A./%6.4&5A(BB "&#-%"(6#'&('#%"&'(
%"#1(4.'%#-,%>('#%&5C(&10,'.14&1%#-($.-,6>('#%"&'(%"#1(#,'(D/#-,%>C(
&6.1.4,6(:&0&-.$4&1%($'.3'#45('#%"&'(%"#1(;/5,1&55($'.2,%5?(E&#-%"7(
#,'(D/#-,%>7(#1:($'.2,%5(#'&(5/'&->(,4$.'%#1%7(;/%(%"&('&#5.1(2.'(&F6-/:,13(
%"&4(2'.4(./'(&0#-/#%,.1(.2(3.0&'14&1%($&'2.'4#16&(,5(5,4$-&*(5.6,#-(
./%6.4&5(#'&(,12-/&16&:(;>(4#1>(%",135(;&5,:&5(3.0&'14&1%?(E&#-%"(
:&$&1:5(.1(2#6%.'5(-,G&(:,&%(#1:(-,2&B5%>-&(%"#%(#'&(;&>.1:(%"&(:,'&6%(
6.1%'.-(.2(#1>(:&4.6'#%,6(3.0&'14&1%(H,'(D/#-,%>(,5(,12-/&16&:(;>(
4&%&.'.-.3>7(:&4.3'#$">7(#1:(,1:/5%'>7(#5(9&--(#5(3.0&'14&1%#-(
$.-,6>?(I'.2,%5('&$'&5&1%(&1%'&$'&1&/',#-(5G,--7(9.'G&'(:,-,3&16&7(9.'-:(
&6.1.4,6(6.1:,%,.157(#1:(5.(.1A(<JKBJJ=?
Urgency&of&problems&vary&from&region&to&region,&however&in&their&early&
years&all&regional&governments&grappled&with&similar&issues
Measuring&performance
Like&the&national&Italian&government,&each&regional&govt&is&led&by&a&
cabinet&that&must&retain&majority&support&in&the&legislature
§
Some&regions&had&highly&stable&cabinets&while&others&found&it&hard&
to&patch&a&coalition&together&and&harder&to&keep&it&together
§
Two&cabinets&in&10&years&within&two&regions&in&the&northern&part&of&
Italy&while&some&regions&in&the&South&like&Sicily&had&nine&cabinets&in&
10&years
§
Cabinet&stability
Budget&Promptness
Statistical&and&Information&Services
Three&Measures&of&policy&processes&and&internal&operations
Reform&Legislation
Similar&to&the&US,&many&legislative&ideas&in&Italy&tend&to&diffuse&
across&subnational&governments,&as&an&attractive&innovation&
introduced&by&a&relatively&advanced&council&is&picked&up&and&passed&
in&less&advanced&regions
§
Northern&regions&tended&to&score&much&higher&and&pioneers&
more&topics&than&southern&counterparts
Despite&differing&local&needs&and&priorities,&certain&regions&were&
consistent&leaders&or&consistent&laggards&on&nearly&all&these&topics
§
Legislative&Innovation
Content&of&policy&decisions
!"#$%&'(L7(M&#5/',13(@15%,%/%,.1#-(I&'2.'4#16&
Putnam'Notes
Sunday,&May&1,&2016
5:48&PM
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