GOV 97 Chapter Notes - Chapter Roson: Moral Authority, Endemic Warfare

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War$of$aggression$and$conquest$vs.$Mexico$in$1846
Civil$War$that$killed$2%$of$the$population$
Acquired$overseas$empire
§
End$of$the$19th$century$vs.$Spain
Not$only$has$the$United$States$been$frequently$involved$in$war,$most$of$these$wars$are$out$of$the$kind$that,$in$
theory,$it$should$have$been$least$likely$to$fight:$aggressive$wars,$civil$ wars,$and$imperial$wars$(20)
20th$century:$US$participation$in$the$endless$wars$of$the$European$powers$for$pre-eminence
Since&&WWII,&the&US&has&frequently&employed&war&as&an&instrument&f&statecraft,&in&striking&contrast&to&the&
increasingly&pacific&nature&of&the&rest&of&the&wealthy&world&(20-21)
Two&major&wars&in&and&around&Iraq
Two&in&the&Balkans
Uses&of&force&in&Somalia&and&Sudan&and&Syria&and&the&Philippines
Since&the&end&of&the&Cold&War&the&pace&has&quickened
The$US$will$remain$unusually$warlike$nation$in$the$years$to$come,$and$the$reason$is$that$we$are$in$fact$an$
unusually$warlike$people,$despite$having$become$wealthier$and$more$multi-ethnic$over$the$years
Our&warlike&nature&resides&in&the&lingering&influence&of&the&early&environment&and&demography&of&British&North&
America,&subsequently&reinforced&by&the&impact&of&the&War&for&Independence,&the&Civil&War&and&WWII.&My&
argument&is&that&the&United&States&had&two&near-simultaneous&foundings,&one&by&the&Scots-Irish&people&ready&
to&fight&when&challenged&and&one&by&Puritans&ready&to&use&force&when&legally&authorized&(21)
Due$to$our$ideological$society
Rosen$privileges$culture$and$historical$significance$over$theory$and$ideology
Weak$neighbors
People$are$constitutionally$devoted$to$the$pursuit$of$wealth$and$happiness
US$should$be$more$peaceful$than$most$democracies
Idea$of$Americans$as$a$sober$and$mercantile$people,$uninterested$in$military$glory
"Warlike$passions$will$become$more$rare$and$less$lively$as$conditions$are$more$equal"$(22)
"Men$who$live$in$democratic$countries$do$not$naturally$have$a$military$spirit;$they$sometimes$take$it$up$when$
they$are$brought$despite$themselves$onto$the$fields$of$battle;$but$to$rise$en$masse$by$oneself$and$to$expose$
oneself$voluntarily$to$the$miseries$of$war,$and$above$all$to$which$man$in$democracies$does$not$resolve$himself$
One$can$therefore$accept$as$a$general$ truth$than$in$centuries$of$equality,$civil$wars$will$become$much$rarer$and$
shorter"$(22)
Kagan:$countries$with$an$abundance$of$military$power$will$find$ways$to$use$it,$while$those$that$lack$military$
power$will$seek$both$to$use$other$forms$of$power$with$which$they$are$better$endowed$and$to$constrain$the$
military$power$of$those$countries$that$have$it.$(22)
More$Europeans$and$Japanese$died$in$the$great$wars$than$did$Americans,$and$their$countries$sustained$far$
greater$damage
War$for$the$US$has$often$been$successful,$in$contrast$to$the$experience$ of$European$and$Asian$nations
Bad$experiences$ such$as$Vietnam$has$not$deterred$our$warlike$nature
United$States$is$an$unusually$ideological$nation$devoted$to$the$spread$of$its$values,$by$force$if$warranted.$
America$is$a$friend$of$liberty$but$the$defender$of$only$its$own
Samuel&Huntington,&the$most$distinguished$political$scientist$of$our$generation,$argued$that$Americans$should$
leave$other$civilizations$and$cultures$to$their$own$ways,$forsaking$military$efforts$to$spread$American$values$and$
the$American$style$of$democracy$abroad.$(23)
The&answer&to&why&the&US&is&a&warlike&people&lies&in&an&understanding&of&the&people&who&settled&North&
American&and&the&nature&of&the&environment&in&which&they&settled&(23)
Went$to$the$area$south$of$the$Delaware$River
200,000-250,000
By$far$the$largest$cohort$of$early$American$settlers$came$from$the$England-Scotland$border$area,$or$had$
immigrated$from$there$to$Northern$Ireland$before$coming$to$North$America$(23)
21,000
Puritan$cohort$came$from$East$Anglia$to$New$England
23,000$
Quaker$settlers$came$to$the$mid-Atlantic$region
45,000
Royalists$settled$in$Virginia
Came$from$a$border$area$that$had$been$constantly$at$war$over$control$of$land,$religion$and$cattle$
since$1040
§
Fiercely$loyal$to$clan$and$sect,$knew$that$their$survival$depended$on$the$willingness$to$fight$in$
response$to$challenges$to$property$or$status
§
Scots-Irish$child-rearing$fostered$fierce$pride,$stubborn$independence,$and$a$warrior's$courage$(23)
§
Not$welcome$in$Philadelphia,$their$common$port$of$disembarkation
Found$home$where$the$powerful$and$warlike$Indian$nations$created$a$dangerous,$contested$
environment$without$established$government
Warfare$against$indigenous$Americans$reinforced$the$social$values$they$had$brought$with$them$to$
North$America
§
Had$more$children$then$other$english$settlers
§
Warlike$nature$due$to:
Warfare$against$the$Indians$in$British$North$America$was$a$place$of$endemic$conflict$that$required$citizens,$
if$they$were$to$be$good$citizens,$to$be$ready$to$join$up$and$fight$when$challenged$by$Indians$(24)
Either$a$declared$war$or$conflict$for$79$of$179$years$from$just$before$the$founding$of$Jamestown$until$
1785
§
American$colonial$society$was$in$an$almost$constant$state$of$conflict
The$form$of$warfare$that$American$society$was$born$and$raised
§
Nature&of&wars: "mere$'skulking'$wars$of$raids,$ambushes$and,$worse,$bloody$campaigns$against$non-
combatants$whose$purpose,$on$both$sides,$was$to$massacre$or$drive$out$their$opponents"$(24)
"The&importance&of&endemic&warfare&as&one&of&the&fundamental&conditions&(along&with&social&equality)&
that&shaped&American&society&helps&us&understand&our&own&origins"&(24)
Scots-Irish$settlers$were$demographically$and$culturally$dominant$in$America$for$many$years$$and$nearly$all$the$
early$formative$years$(23)
Considerably$less$wild$social$behavior
Puritans$emphasized$social$order$and$crimes$against$order$were$heavily$penalized
§
Violence,$often$brutal,$had$to$be$socially$authorized$before$it$could$occur$(25)
"collective$order$and$institutional$violence"
Even$though$more$order,$doesn't$mean$less$violence
§
Violence$when$employed$had$to$be$sanctioned$by$a$legitimate$authority;$namely,$the$moral$and$
political$elites$in$the$New$England$social$hierarchy"
§
The$elites$ not$only$authorized$the$war;$they$forced$the$gentry$to$mass$military$mobilization
§
The$puritan$view$of$war$was$distinct$from$that$of$the$Scots-Irish,$but$both$groups$into$war,$albeit$
different$kinds$of$wars
§
Had$lower$levels$of$crime$in$New$England
Main$competitors$of$Scots-Irish$for$hegemony$in$English$America$were$the$Puritans$of$New$England
Secession$of$the$South$were$treason,$a$violation$of$social$order$deserving$of$the$harshest$punishment$a$
Puritan$state$could$administer
Southerners,$even$those$who$did$not$own$slaves,$fought$fiercely$in$response$to$an$external$invader,$even$in$
the$face$of$utter$and$certain$devastation
Truly$a$clash$of$two$cultures,$not$civilizations
This$new$military$patriotism,$born$of$war$and$dedicated$to$American$ideals$of$equality$and$liberty,$was$one$
of$the$factors$that$limited$the$political$ impact$of$the$social$divisions$created$by$industrialization
"loyalty$to$the$established$democratic$state$was$increased$by$participation$in$the$Civil$War:$workers$had$
successfully$fought,$after$all,$for$the$world's$only$democracy,$and$they$had$done$so$against$the$old$regime$
of$the$southern$aristocracy"$(26)
Numerous$military$bases$and$military$production$contracts$in$both$WWI$and$WWII$built$in$South
§
Re-integration$of$the$South$into$the$American$military
Civil&War:&North&(Puritans)&vs.&South&(Scots-Irish)
Counterculture$captured$the$universities$and$the$Vietnam$War$turned$ordinary$Americans$against$government's$
exercising$ war$powers
America$has$had$300$years$of$history$during$which$the$idea$of$warfare$as$a$legitimate$response$to$security$
challenges$at$home$and$abroad$has$become$embedded$in$American$culture
Scots-Irish$treated$warfare$in$response$to$challenges$as$a$matter$of$individual$honor$and$self-respect
New$England$Puritan$tradition$treated$warfare$as$righteous$if$authorized$by$a$higher$legal$or$moral$authority$that$
upheld$the$larger$community's$need$to$enforce$or$restore$order(27)
First$war$in$Iraq:$Iraqi$invasion$of$Kuwait$was$a$clear$challenge$both$to$the$United$States$and$the$international$
legal$order$as$judged$by$the$United$Nations,$and$was$thus$a$war$that$united$both$Scots-Irish$and$Puritan$cultures$
(27)
In$response$to$9/11$and$the$aftermath:$The$Scots-Irish$were$not$so$concerned$about$legal$niceties.$We$were$in$a$
fight,$our$reputation$and$honor$depended$on$killing$and$winning,$end$of$discussion
The$Scots-Irish$appear$to$have$been$culturally$and$demographically$dominant$up$through$the$1980's,$with$more$
Presidents$than$any$other$ethnic$group
The$trends$in$the$balance$of$political$power$between$red$and$blue$states$in$some$ways$seem$to$still$reflect$the$
division$between$the$Scots-Irish$and$Puritan$cultures,$but$new$elements$in$the$demographic$equation$of$
American$politics$have$diluted$the$old$dualism$to$some$degree$(27)
Colleges$does$not$affect$the$bulk$of$American$males
College$education$correlated$positively$with$support$for$the$Vietnam$War;$contrary$to$the$public$image$of$
antiwar$college$students,$poll$data$show$that$higher$levels$of$education$consistently$predicted$higher$levels$of$
support$for$the$war$(28)
Scots-Irish$culture$will$continue$to$run$strong$through$the$national$veins,$and$it$is$likely$to$run$even$more$strongly$
relative$to$ethnic$groups$who$have$fewer$children
Puritan$culture$will$remain$strong,$too,$but$there$seems$to$be$no$reason$to$think$that$increasing$attainment$of$
college$education$will$make$Puritan$culture$stronger$in$the$future$than$it$was$in$the$past
America$will$continue$to$be$united$about$wars$that$respond$to$challenges$to$the$United$States$and$are$
internationally$authorized
It$will$be$divided$when$war$is$not$so$authorized
Rosen&Notes
Monday,$May$2,$2016
7:48$PM
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War$of$aggression$and$conquest$vs.$Mexico$in$1846
Civil$War$that$killed$2%$of$the$population$
Acquired$overseas$empire
§
End$of$the$19th$century$vs.$Spain
Not$only$has$the$United$States$been$frequently$involved$in$war,$most$of$these$wars$are$out$of$the$kind$that,$in$
theory,$it$should$have$been$least$likely$to$fight:$aggressive$wars,$civil$ wars,$and$imperial$wars$(20)
20th$century:$US$participation$in$the$endless$wars$of$the$European$powers$for$pre-eminence
Since&&WWII,&the&US&has&frequently&employed&war&as&an&instrument&f&statecraft,&in&striking&contrast&to&the&
increasingly&pacific&nature&of&the&rest&of&the&wealthy&world&(20-21)
Two&major&wars&in&and&around&Iraq
One&war&in&Afghanistan&spreading&into&Pakistan
Two&in&the&Balkans
Uses&of&force&in&Somalia&and&Sudan&and&Syria&and&the&Philippines
Since&the&end&of&the&Cold&War&the&pace&has&quickened
The$US$will$remain$unusually$warlike$nation$in$the$years$to$come,$and$the$reason$is$that$we$are$in$fact$an$
unusually$warlike$people,$despite$having$become$wealthier$and$more$multi-ethnic$over$the$years
Our&warlike&nature&resides&in&the&lingering&influence&of&the&early&environment&and&demography&of&British&North&
America,&subsequently&reinforced&by&the&impact&of&the&War&for&Independence,&the&Civil&War&and&WWII.&My&
argument&is&that&the&United&States&had&two&near-simultaneous&foundings,&one&by&the&Scots-Irish&people&ready&
to&fight&when&challenged&and&one&by&Puritans&ready&to&use&force&when&legally&authorized&(21)
Due$to$our$ideological$society
Rosen$privileges$culture$and$historical$significance$over$theory$and$ideology
Weak$neighbors
People$are$constitutionally$devoted$to$the$pursuit$of$wealth$and$happiness
US$should$be$more$peaceful$than$most$democracies
Idea$of$Americans$as$a$sober$and$mercantile$people,$uninterested$in$military$glory
"Warlike$passions$will$become$more$rare$and$less$lively$as$conditions$are$more$equal"$(22)
"Men$who$live$in$democratic$countries$do$not$naturally$have$a$military$spirit;$they$sometimes$take$it$up$when$
they$are$brought$despite$themselves$onto$the$fields$of$battle;$but$to$rise$en$masse$by$oneself$and$to$expose$
oneself$voluntarily$to$the$miseries$of$war,$and$above$all$to$which$man$in$democracies$does$not$resolve$himself$
One$can$therefore$accept$as$a$general$ truth$than$in$centuries$of$equality,$civil$wars$will$become$much$rarer$and$
shorter"$(22)
Kagan:$countries$with$an$abundance$of$military$power$will$find$ways$to$use$it,$while$those$that$lack$military$
power$will$seek$both$to$use$other$forms$of$power$with$which$they$are$better$endowed$and$to$constrain$the$
military$power$of$those$countries$that$have$it.$(22)
More$Europeans$and$Japanese$died$in$the$great$wars$than$did$Americans,$and$their$countries$sustained$far$
greater$damage
War$for$the$US$has$often$been$successful,$in$contrast$to$the$experience$ of$European$and$Asian$nations
Bad$experiences$ such$as$Vietnam$has$not$deterred$our$warlike$nature
United$States$is$an$unusually$ideological$nation$devoted$to$the$spread$of$its$values,$by$force$if$warranted.$
America$is$a$friend$of$liberty$but$the$defender$of$only$its$own
Samuel&Huntington,&the$most$distinguished$political$scientist$of$our$generation,$argued$that$Americans$should$
leave$other$civilizations$and$cultures$to$their$own$ways,$forsaking$military$efforts$to$spread$American$values$and$
the$American$style$of$democracy$abroad.$(23)
The&answer&to&why&the&US&is&a&warlike&people&lies&in&an&understanding&of&the&people&who&settled&North&
American&and&the&nature&of&the&environment&in&which&they&settled&(23)
Went$to$the$area$south$of$the$Delaware$River
200,000-250,000
By$far$the$largest$cohort$of$early$American$settlers$came$from$the$England-Scotland$border$area,$or$had$
immigrated$from$there$to$Northern$Ireland$before$coming$to$North$America$(23)
21,000
Puritan$cohort$came$from$East$Anglia$to$New$England
23,000$
Quaker$settlers$came$to$the$mid-Atlantic$region
45,000
Royalists$settled$in$Virginia
Came$from$a$border$area$that$had$been$constantly$at$war$over$control$of$land,$religion$and$cattle$
since$1040
§
Fiercely$loyal$to$clan$and$sect,$knew$that$their$survival$depended$on$the$willingness$to$fight$in$
response$to$challenges$to$property$or$status
§
Scots-Irish$child-rearing$fostered$fierce$pride,$stubborn$independence,$and$a$warrior's$courage$(23)
§
Not$welcome$in$Philadelphia,$their$common$port$of$disembarkation
Found$home$where$the$powerful$and$warlike$Indian$nations$created$a$dangerous,$contested$
environment$without$established$government
Warfare$against$indigenous$Americans$reinforced$the$social$values$they$had$brought$with$them$to$
North$America
§
Had$more$children$then$other$english$settlers
§
Warlike$nature$due$to:
Warfare$against$the$Indians$in$British$North$America$was$a$place$of$endemic$conflict$that$required$citizens,$
if$they$were$to$be$good$citizens,$to$be$ready$to$join$up$and$fight$when$challenged$by$Indians$(24)
Either$a$declared$war$or$conflict$for$79$of$179$years$from$just$before$the$founding$of$Jamestown$until$
1785
§
American$colonial$society$was$in$an$almost$constant$state$of$conflict
The$form$of$warfare$that$American$society$was$born$and$raised
§
Nature&of&wars: "mere$'skulking'$wars$of$raids,$ambushes$and,$worse,$bloody$campaigns$against$non-
combatants$whose$purpose,$on$both$sides,$was$to$massacre$or$drive$out$their$opponents"$(24)
"The&importance&of&endemic&warfare&as&one&of&the&fundamental&conditions&(along&with&social&equality)&
that&shaped&American&society&helps&us&understand&our&own&origins"&(24)
Scots-Irish$settlers$were$demographically$and$culturally$dominant$in$America$for$many$years$$and$nearly$all$the$
early$formative$years$(23)
Considerably$less$wild$social$behavior
Puritans$emphasized$social$order$and$crimes$against$order$were$heavily$penalized
§
Violence,$often$brutal,$had$to$be$socially$authorized$before$it$could$occur$(25)
"collective$order$and$institutional$violence"
Even$though$more$order,$doesn't$mean$less$violence
§
Violence$when$employed$had$to$be$sanctioned$by$a$legitimate$authority;$namely,$the$moral$and$
political$elites$in$the$New$England$social$hierarchy"
§
The$elites$ not$only$authorized$the$war;$they$forced$the$gentry$to$mass$military$mobilization
§
The$puritan$view$of$war$was$distinct$from$that$of$the$Scots-Irish,$but$both$groups$into$war,$albeit$
different$kinds$of$wars
§
Had$lower$levels$of$crime$in$New$England
Main$competitors$of$Scots-Irish$for$hegemony$in$English$America$were$the$Puritans$of$New$England
Secession$of$the$South$were$treason,$a$violation$of$social$order$deserving$of$the$harshest$punishment$a$
Puritan$state$could$administer
Southerners,$even$those$who$did$not$own$slaves,$fought$fiercely$in$response$to$an$external$invader,$even$in$
the$face$of$utter$and$certain$devastation
Truly$a$clash$of$two$cultures,$not$civilizations
This$new$military$patriotism,$born$of$war$and$dedicated$to$American$ideals$of$equality$and$liberty,$was$one$
of$the$factors$that$limited$the$political$ impact$of$the$social$divisions$created$by$industrialization
"loyalty$to$the$established$democratic$state$was$increased$by$participation$in$the$Civil$War:$workers$had$
successfully$fought,$after$all,$for$the$world's$only$democracy,$and$they$had$done$so$against$the$old$regime$
of$the$southern$aristocracy"$(26)
Numerous$military$bases$and$military$production$contracts$in$both$WWI$and$WWII$built$in$South
§
Re-integration$of$the$South$into$the$American$military
Civil&War:&North&(Puritans)&vs.&South&(Scots-Irish)
Counterculture$captured$the$universities$and$the$Vietnam$War$turned$ordinary$Americans$against$government's$
exercising$ war$powers
America$has$had$300$years$of$history$during$which$the$idea$of$warfare$as$a$legitimate$response$to$security$
challenges$at$home$and$abroad$has$become$embedded$in$American$culture
Scots-Irish$treated$warfare$in$response$to$challenges$as$a$matter$of$individual$honor$and$self-respect
New$England$Puritan$tradition$treated$warfare$as$righteous$if$authorized$by$a$higher$legal$or$moral$authority$that$
upheld$the$larger$community's$need$to$enforce$or$restore$order(27)
First$war$in$Iraq:$Iraqi$invasion$of$Kuwait$was$a$clear$challenge$both$to$the$United$States$and$the$international$
legal$order$as$judged$by$the$United$Nations,$and$was$thus$a$war$that$united$both$Scots-Irish$and$Puritan$cultures$
(27)
In$response$to$9/11$and$the$aftermath:$The$Scots-Irish$were$not$so$concerned$about$legal$niceties.$We$were$in$a$
fight,$our$reputation$and$honor$depended$on$killing$and$winning,$end$of$discussion
The$Scots-Irish$appear$to$have$been$culturally$and$demographically$dominant$up$through$the$1980's,$with$more$
Presidents$than$any$other$ethnic$group
The$trends$in$the$balance$of$political$power$between$red$and$blue$states$in$some$ways$seem$to$still$reflect$the$
division$between$the$Scots-Irish$and$Puritan$cultures,$but$new$elements$in$the$demographic$equation$of$
American$politics$have$diluted$the$old$dualism$to$some$degree$(27)
Colleges$does$not$affect$the$bulk$of$American$males
College$education$correlated$positively$with$support$for$the$Vietnam$War;$contrary$to$the$public$image$of$
antiwar$college$students,$poll$data$show$that$higher$levels$of$education$consistently$predicted$higher$levels$of$
support$for$the$war$(28)
Scots-Irish$culture$will$continue$to$run$strong$through$the$national$veins,$and$it$is$likely$to$run$even$more$strongly$
relative$to$ethnic$groups$who$have$fewer$children
Puritan$culture$will$remain$strong,$too,$but$there$seems$to$be$no$reason$to$think$that$increasing$attainment$of$
college$education$will$make$Puritan$culture$stronger$in$the$future$than$it$was$in$the$past
America$will$continue$to$be$united$about$wars$that$respond$to$challenges$to$the$United$States$and$are$
internationally$authorized
It$will$be$divided$when$war$is$not$so$authorized
Rosen&Notes
Monday,$May$2,$2016 7:48$PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

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War$of$aggression$and$conquest$vs.$Mexico$in$1846
Civil$War$that$killed$2%$of$the$population$
Acquired$overseas$empire
§
End$of$the$19th$century$vs.$Spain
Not$only$has$the$United$States$been$frequently$involved$in$war,$most$of$these$wars$are$out$of$the$kind$that,$in$
theory,$it$should$have$been$least$likely$to$fight:$aggressive$wars,$civil$ wars,$and$imperial$wars$(20)
20th$century:$US$participation$in$the$endless$wars$of$the$European$powers$for$pre-eminence
Since&&WWII,&the&US&has&frequently&employed&war&as&an&instrument&f&statecraft,&in&striking&contrast&to&the&
increasingly&pacific&nature&of&the&rest&of&the&wealthy&world&(20-21)
Two&major&wars&in&and&around&Iraq
One&war&in&Afghanistan&spreading&into&Pakistan
Two&in&the&Balkans
Uses&of&force&in&Somalia&and&Sudan&and&Syria&and&the&Philippines
Since&the&end&of&the&Cold&War&the&pace&has&quickened
The$US$will$remain$unusually$warlike$nation$in$the$years$to$come,$and$the$reason$is$that$we$are$in$fact$an$
unusually$warlike$people,$despite$having$become$wealthier$and$more$multi-ethnic$over$the$years
Our&warlike&nature&resides&in&the&lingering&influence&of&the&early&environment&and&demography&of&British&North&
America,&subsequently&reinforced&by&the&impact&of&the&War&for&Independence,&the&Civil&War&and&WWII.&My&
argument&is&that&the&United&States&had&two&near-simultaneous&foundings,&one&by&the&Scots-Irish&people&ready&
to&fight&when&challenged&and&one&by&Puritans&ready&to&use&force&when&legally&authorized&(21)
Due$to$our$ideological$society
Rosen$privileges$culture$and$historical$significance$over$theory$and$ideology
Weak$neighbors
People$are$constitutionally$devoted$to$the$pursuit$of$wealth$and$happiness
US$should$be$more$peaceful$than$most$democracies
Idea$of$Americans$as$a$sober$and$mercantile$people,$uninterested$in$military$glory
"Warlike$passions$will$become$more$rare$and$less$lively$as$conditions$are$more$equal"$(22)
"Men$who$live$in$democratic$countries$do$not$naturally$have$a$military$spirit;$they$sometimes$take$it$up$when$
they$are$brought$despite$themselves$onto$the$fields$of$battle;$but$to$rise$en$masse$by$oneself$and$to$expose$
oneself$voluntarily$to$the$miseries$of$war,$and$above$all$to$which$man$in$democracies$does$not$resolve$himself$
One$can$therefore$accept$as$a$general$ truth$than$in$centuries$of$equality,$civil$wars$will$become$much$rarer$and$
shorter"$(22)
Kagan:$countries$with$an$abundance$of$military$power$will$find$ways$to$use$it,$while$those$that$lack$military$
power$will$seek$both$to$use$other$forms$of$power$with$which$they$are$better$endowed$and$to$constrain$the$
military$power$of$those$countries$that$have$it.$(22)
More$Europeans$and$Japanese$died$in$the$great$wars$than$did$Americans,$and$their$countries$sustained$far$
greater$damage
War$for$the$US$has$often$been$successful,$in$contrast$to$the$experience$ of$European$and$Asian$nations
Bad$experiences$ such$as$Vietnam$has$not$deterred$our$warlike$nature
United$States$is$an$unusually$ideological$nation$devoted$to$the$spread$of$its$values,$by$force$if$warranted.$
America$is$a$friend$of$liberty$but$the$defender$of$only$its$own
Samuel&Huntington,&the$most$distinguished$political$scientist$of$our$generation,$argued$that$Americans$should$
leave$other$civilizations$and$cultures$to$their$own$ways,$forsaking$military$efforts$to$spread$American$values$and$
the$American$style$of$democracy$abroad.$(23)
The&answer&to&why&the&US&is&a&warlike&people&lies&in&an&understanding&of&the&people&who&settled&North&
American&and&the&nature&of&the&environment&in&which&they&settled&(23)
Went$to$the$area$south$of$the$Delaware$River
200,000-250,000
By$far$the$largest$cohort$of$early$American$settlers$came$from$the$England-Scotland$border$area,$or$had$
immigrated$from$there$to$Northern$Ireland$before$coming$to$North$America$(23)
21,000
Puritan$cohort$came$from$East$Anglia$to$New$England
23,000$
Quaker$settlers$came$to$the$mid-Atlantic$region
45,000
Royalists$settled$in$Virginia
Came$from$a$border$area$that$had$been$constantly$at$war$over$control$of$land,$religion$and$cattle$
since$1040
§
Fiercely$loyal$to$clan$and$sect,$knew$that$their$survival$depended$on$the$willingness$to$fight$in$
response$to$challenges$to$property$or$status
§
Scots-Irish$child-rearing$fostered$fierce$pride,$stubborn$independence,$and$a$warrior's$courage$(23)
§
Not$welcome$in$Philadelphia,$their$common$port$of$disembarkation
Found$home$where$the$powerful$and$warlike$Indian$nations$created$a$dangerous,$contested$
environment$without$established$government
Warfare$against$indigenous$Americans$reinforced$the$social$values$they$had$brought$with$them$to$
North$America
§
Had$more$children$then$other$english$settlers
§
Warlike$nature$due$to:
Warfare$against$the$Indians$in$British$North$America$was$a$place$of$endemic$conflict$that$required$citizens,$
if$they$were$to$be$good$citizens,$to$be$ready$to$join$up$and$fight$when$challenged$by$Indians$(24)
Either$a$declared$war$or$conflict$for$79$of$179$years$from$just$before$the$founding$of$Jamestown$until$
1785
§
American$colonial$society$was$in$an$almost$constant$state$of$conflict
The$form$of$warfare$that$American$society$was$born$and$raised
§
Nature&of&wars: "mere$'skulking'$wars$of$raids,$ambushes$and,$worse,$bloody$campaigns$against$non-
combatants$whose$purpose,$on$both$sides,$was$to$massacre$or$drive$out$their$opponents"$(24)
"The&importance&of&endemic&warfare&as&one&of&the&fundamental&conditions&(along&with&social&equality)&
that&shaped&American&society&helps&us&understand&our&own&origins"&(24)
Scots-Irish$settlers$were$demographically$and$culturally$dominant$in$America$for$many$years$$and$nearly$all$the$
early$formative$years$(23)
Considerably$less$wild$social$behavior
Puritans$emphasized$social$order$and$crimes$against$order$were$heavily$penalized
§
Violence,$often$brutal,$had$to$be$socially$authorized$before$it$could$occur$(25)
"collective$order$and$institutional$violence"
Even$though$more$order,$doesn't$mean$less$violence
§
Violence$when$employed$had$to$be$sanctioned$by$a$legitimate$authority;$namely,$the$moral$and$
political$elites$in$the$New$England$social$hierarchy"
§
The$elites$ not$only$authorized$the$war;$they$forced$the$gentry$to$mass$military$mobilization
§
The$puritan$view$of$war$was$distinct$from$that$of$the$Scots-Irish,$but$both$groups$into$war,$albeit$
different$kinds$of$wars
§
Had$lower$levels$of$crime$in$New$England
Main$competitors$of$Scots-Irish$for$hegemony$in$English$America$were$the$Puritans$of$New$England
Secession$of$the$South$were$treason,$a$violation$of$social$order$deserving$of$the$harshest$punishment$a$
Puritan$state$could$administer
Southerners,$even$those$who$did$not$own$slaves,$fought$fiercely$in$response$to$an$external$invader,$even$in$
the$face$of$utter$and$certain$devastation
Truly$a$clash$of$two$cultures,$not$civilizations
This$new$military$patriotism,$born$of$war$and$dedicated$to$American$ideals$of$equality$and$liberty,$was$one$
of$the$factors$that$limited$the$political$ impact$of$the$social$divisions$created$by$industrialization
"loyalty$to$the$established$democratic$state$was$increased$by$participation$in$the$Civil$War:$workers$had$
successfully$fought,$after$all,$for$the$world's$only$democracy,$and$they$had$done$so$against$the$old$regime$
of$the$southern$aristocracy"$(26)
Numerous$military$bases$and$military$production$contracts$in$both$WWI$and$WWII$built$in$South
§
Re-integration$of$the$South$into$the$American$military
Civil&War:&North&(Puritans)&vs.&South&(Scots-Irish)
Counterculture$captured$the$universities$and$the$Vietnam$War$turned$ordinary$Americans$against$government's$
exercising$ war$powers
America$has$had$300$years$of$history$during$which$the$idea$of$warfare$as$a$legitimate$response$to$security$
challenges$at$home$and$abroad$has$become$embedded$in$American$culture
Scots-Irish$treated$warfare$in$response$to$challenges$as$a$matter$of$individual$honor$and$self-respect
New$England$Puritan$tradition$treated$warfare$as$righteous$if$authorized$by$a$higher$legal$or$moral$authority$that$
upheld$the$larger$community's$need$to$enforce$or$restore$order(27)
First$war$in$Iraq:$Iraqi$invasion$of$Kuwait$was$a$clear$challenge$both$to$the$United$States$and$the$international$
legal$order$as$judged$by$the$United$Nations,$and$was$thus$a$war$that$united$both$Scots-Irish$and$Puritan$cultures$
(27)
In$response$to$9/11$and$the$aftermath:$The$Scots-Irish$were$not$so$concerned$about$legal$niceties.$We$were$in$a$
fight,$our$reputation$and$honor$depended$on$killing$and$winning,$end$of$discussion
The$Scots-Irish$appear$to$have$been$culturally$and$demographically$dominant$up$through$the$1980's,$with$more$
Presidents$than$any$other$ethnic$group
The$trends$in$the$balance$of$political$power$between$red$and$blue$states$in$some$ways$seem$to$still$reflect$the$
division$between$the$Scots-Irish$and$Puritan$cultures,$but$new$elements$in$the$demographic$equation$of$
American$politics$have$diluted$the$old$dualism$to$some$degree$(27)
Colleges$does$not$affect$the$bulk$of$American$males
College$education$correlated$positively$with$support$for$the$Vietnam$War;$contrary$to$the$public$image$of$
antiwar$college$students,$poll$data$show$that$higher$levels$of$education$consistently$predicted$higher$levels$of$
support$for$the$war$(28)
Scots-Irish$culture$will$continue$to$run$strong$through$the$national$veins,$and$it$is$likely$to$run$even$more$strongly$
relative$to$ethnic$groups$who$have$fewer$children
Puritan$culture$will$remain$strong,$too,$but$there$seems$to$be$no$reason$to$think$that$increasing$attainment$of$
college$education$will$make$Puritan$culture$stronger$in$the$future$than$it$was$in$the$past
America$will$continue$to$be$united$about$wars$that$respond$to$challenges$to$the$United$States$and$are$
internationally$authorized
It$will$be$divided$when$war$is$not$so$authorized
Rosen&Notes
Monday,$May$2,$2016 7:48$PM
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Document Summary

Not only has the united states been frequently involved in war, most of these wars are ou theory, it should have been least likely to fight: aggressive wars, civil wars, and imperial wa. War of aggression and conquest vs. mexico in 1846. Civil war that killed 2% of the population. 20th century: us participation in the endless wars of the european powers for pre-eminen. Since wwii, the us has frequently employed war as an instrument f statecraft, in strikin increasingly pacific nature of the rest of the wealthy world (20-21) Since the end of the cold war the pace has quickened. Uses of force in somalia and sudan and syria and the philippines. The us will remain unusually warlike nation in the years to come, and the reason is that w unusually warlike people, despite having become wealthier and more multi-ethnic over th. Our warlike nature resides in the lingering influence of the early environment and demo.

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