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Chapter 6

HWST 107 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Acculturation, Native Hawaiians, Konohiki


Department
Hawaiian Studies
Course Code
HWST 107
Professor
kumu
Chapter
6

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Introduction
● Purpose: considering extent to which some ‘oiwi (Native Hawaiians) have generated
maps to prevent colonization, rather than treating maps simply as symptom of
colonization
○ Were the tools of the colonizers used by Hawaiian ali’i against colonialism itself?
● Surveying and mapping of Kingdom lands affected traditional Hawaiian concepts of land
division and palena (place boundaries)
○ Maps are hard-copy translations of ‘oiwi (native Hawaiian) mental maps held in
minds of spatially literate people
■ Reflect traditional boundaries maintained by indigenous people
I palapala no ia aina: the creation of documents for the lands of the Hawaiian Kingdom
○ Production of documentation in the form of treaties, maps, and laws
○ Assured recognition of Kingdom as an independent state
The Mahele of 1848: set up stage for large-scale privatization of lands in Hawaiian Kingdom
● King, chiefs, and commoners held undivided shares in whole landed estate
○ But maka’ainana were only awarded 28,000 acres
■ Doesn’t account for gov’t lands that were offered to them @ 50 cents per
acre, then $1 per acre
The Tools of the Colonizer
● Mapping Hawaiian territory is different from mapping Thai and Japanese territory…
○ I. territory of Hawaiian Kingdom is not geographically comparable
■ Surrounded by sea
○ II. Ka Pae ‘Aina (the Hawaiian Islands) were homogeneous even before
Kamehameha’s conquest in 1793
■ Very similar languages, political systems of governance, and religious
systems were in practice throughout the islands prior to unification
● ‘Oiwi might have chose to engage Western tools and technologies on the basis of their
own customary knowledge systems
○ Not necessarily forced upon them
Hawaiian ways of knowing
‘Olelo no’eau (traditional proverbs) such as ma ka hana ka ‘ike (‘through work one gains
knowledge’) stress the value of knowledge gained through application
○ Applied knowledge > theoretical knowledge
● Hawaiians are quick to accept things that can be useful to them, even if they don’t have
‘oiwi origins
○ Hawai’i is the first place in the world to have electricity
S.P. Kalama’s 1838 map: acculturation or transculturation?
● ‘Oiwi created the moku (a land division roughly equivalent to a district) and settled on a
series of names for them
● The map Hawai’i
nei
Na
Kalama
i
kaha

was one of the earliest written maps of ahupua’a
available during the time of Mahele
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