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PSYC10300 (2)
Chapter 1

Psychology Chapter 1 research methods.docx

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Psychology Chapter 1: Research Methods & Critical Thinking The Scientific Method 1. Specify a problem (theory) 2. Systematic observation- collect data (“pilot phase”) 3. Form a hypothesis 4. test hypothesis a. Operational Definition: specify what you will measure 5. Formulate a theory based on previous data 6. Test theory Types of Scientific Research  Descriptive (don’t predict anything)  Correlational (relationships)  Experimental (causuality)  Quasi-experiments  Descriptive Research o Naturalistic Observation: see patterns in the world by observing o Participant Observation: the researcher participates o Case Studies: single case in detail o Surveys  Correlational Research: relationships between two or more variables are measured but not manipulated. o A correlation is the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables. o -1 to 1 o Strength of correlational research: can study variables that can’t be manipulated o Weakness  correlation doesn’t mean causation  3rd variable problem: other variables (confounds) could account for the relationship between the variables.  Directionality problem  Experimental Research o Random Assignment  Experiment group  control group o Strength: rigorous control, causal inferences o Weakness: not all variables can be manipulated, findings not always “real world” o Independent variable: intentionally varied while another variable is measured (the treatment or condition) o Dependent variable: the variable that’s measured while th
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