CHEM 1212 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Close-Packing Of Equal Spheres, Cubic Crystal System, Konstantin Novoselov

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12. 1 friday nights experiments: the discovery of graphene. In 2010, andrew geim and konstantin novoselov were awarded a nobel prize in physics for their discovery of graphene. Graphene is both the thinnest and strongest material, it conducts heat, electricity, is transparent, and impenetrable. Andrew geim explored lateral ideas through friday nights experiments. Scotch tape broke the field when they created the thinnest layer. Solids can be crystalline (composed of atoms or molecules arranged in structures with long-range order) or amorphous (composed of atoms or molecules with no long-range order). X-ray diffraction, a powerful laboratory technique enables us to study the geometric microscopic patterns in molecules. Electromagnetic waves (light waves) interact with each other in interference: they cancel each other out or reinforce each other. Constructive interference occurs when two waves interact with their crests and troughs through alignment. Destructive interference occurs when two waves interact with the crests of one aligning with the troughs of the other.