POLS Chapter 2 and 3:
Wanted representation to be apportioned according to population
Did NOT want taxation based on population
James Madison and Charles Pinckney
New Jersey Plan
Wanted representation apportioned equally
Wanted taxation based on population
The Great Compromise
Combined plans …
House of Representatives satisfies Virginia Plan
Senate satisfies New Jersey Plan
Part 1 of the Great Compromise is called Bicameralism… 2 houses.
Checks and Balances means that one branch has the power to limit the abilities of the other
Article 2 Sec. 2 … lists powers of the president
Article 1 Sec. 7…. The process for getting a bill passed.
2 Stage Process for ratifying an amendment.
Ratification and Proposal
Equal rights amendment???
The government has not made it so that women and men legally have to be treated
Article 6… Supremacy Clause
Article 1 Sec. 8…
ENUMERATED POWERS: Specific listed powers of Congress.
Economic responsibilities of the federal government.
Article 4 & 6… Federalism
Why did the Articles of Confederation didn’t work?
Federal government can’t handle commerce.
Federal government couldn’t tax.
Federalism: A governmental structure with two levels of government in which each level has
Sovereignty: decision-makers have ultimate authority to act with no legal superior.
Dual Sovereignty: two governments have authority over different matter at same time
with no sovereign. How can there be two or more sovereigns in the same territory
One federal government
Fifty state governments
89,000 local governments
500,000 electoral positions
Good or bad?
Good: multiple points of access for citizen
Bad: confusion and conflict are present
Individuals have free will.
1.Purpose of Government: Justice is the end of government. The poor people are the
stronger faction, uniting against the wealthy people (the weaker faction).
2. Republicanism and social contract: How are people going to be secure from the
government. Divide the government into different branches. Separation of Powers to
secure the rights of the people.
3. Hobbes and Locke and Federalism: Checks and Balances. Branches are going to be in
competition with each other.
4. Separation of Powers: The people will choose their appointed officials. The branches
are going to be in competition with each other. The government does not get to choose
who their officials are. It is up to the people.
6. Why Checks and Balances Are Necessary: United States is a compound republic.
James Madison says that ambition must be made to counteract ambition.
None of the Major Independence Leaders went to the Constitutional Convention.
Father of the American Revolution
Heard about Boston Tea Party
Give me Liberty or Give me Death
Too much power in the central government, where is the Bill of Rights
Federalism is the division of power:
Expressed Powers: Spelled out in constitution