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Chapter 1

PSYC 104 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Psychoanalysis, Psychotherapy, Evolutionary Psychology

Course Code
PSYC 104

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Psychology Chapter 1
-August 25 September 5 2008
I. Origins of Psychology
A. Psychology has no definite beginning
B. Founder was Wilhelm Wundt
1. He established the first psychology laboratory to study psychology
2. He used introspection - self-examination and reporting of one’s conscious
experience (feeling, thinking sensing)
i. This transitioned psychology from philosophy to a science
ii. Example he would play a sound and ask about a person’s conscious
3. Had a disciple named Edward Titchener
i. Titchener and Wundt developed a school known as structuralism
it attempted to define the structure of the mind by breaking down
mental experiences into their component parts
ii. Stanley Hall worked for Hundt and important for psych in the US
C. John Watson and Behaviorism
1. Behavorialism psychology should limit itself to the study of overt
behavior that observers could record and measure
2. Watson believed you couldn’t observe someone’s mental processes and
that psychology could never advance as a science without observable

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events. He also believed the environment molds human and animal
3. Behavioralism became dominant with B. F. Skinner
i. He learned behaviors through rewards/punishments
ii. Studied animal behavior rewarded them for performing tricks
iii. Believed animal behavior could be applied to humans
D. Max Wertheimer and Gestalt Psychology
1. Gestalt Psychology psychology that studies the ways in which the
gbrain organizes and structures our perceptions of the world
2. Gestalt Unitary form or pattern
i. Gestaltists believed that the brain determines how we see the world,
they rejected structuralism
3. “The sum of the parts” Example is the arrow on pg. 8
E. Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
1. Unconscious primitive sexual and aggressive instincts
2. Psychodynamic perspective childhood experiences shape our behavior
and abnormal behavior ( such as phobias)
3. Psychoanalysis “talk therapy” analysis of unconscious state of mind
II. Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology
A. Behavioral Perspective
1. Observable Behavior and the role of learning behavior
2. Behavior therapy learning principles to bring desired changes in
emotional states and behavior
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