NURS 3330 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Lawrence Kohlberg, Albert Bandura, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

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Chapter 6: Growth and Development
General Principles of Growth and Development
Unique and highly individualized process
Interrelated and interdependent process
Ongoing from conception to end of life
Influenced by factors such as genetics, environment, and nutrition
Growth: increase in height and weight
Development: acquisition of skills and abilities
Characterized by periods of rapid growth and plateaus
Growth and Development follow and orderly pattern:
o Cephalocaudal: starts at the head and moves downward
o Proximodistal: Starts in the center and processes to the periphery
o Differentiation: simple to complex progression of achievement of
developmental milestones
Five Stages in Childhood
Infant- birth to 1 year
Toddler-age 1 to 3 years
Preschool- age 3 to 6 years
School age- 6 to 12 years
Adolescence- 12 to 18 years
Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
Sensorimotor: birth to 2 years
o The child learns through motor and reflex actions
o The child learns that he or she is separate from the environment and
others
Stage 1: reflexes- birth to 2 months. Understands the
environment purely through inborn reflexes such as sucking
Stage 2: Primary Circular Reactions-1 to 4 months. Beginning
to coordinate reflexes and sensations.
Stage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions- 4 to 8 months. Child
focuses on environment, and begins to repeat actions that
trigger a response.
Stage 4: Coordination of Secondary Schemata- 8 to 12 months.
To achieve a desired effect, the child will repeat the action.
Stage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions- 12 to 18 months. The
child begins to trial and error approaches.
Stage 6: Inventions of New Means/Mental Combinations- 18 t o
24 months. The child learns that objects and symbols represent
events
Preoperational: 2 to 7 years
o Application of language
o Use of symbols to represent objects
o Ability to think about things and events that aren’t immediately
present
o Oriented to the present, the child has difficulty conceptualizing time
o Thinking is influenced by fantasy
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o Teaching must take into account the child’s vivid fantasies and
undeveloped sense of time.
Concrete Operational: 7 to 11 years
o Increase in accommodation skills
o Develops an ability to think abstractly and to make rational judgments
about concrete or observable phenomena.
o In teaching, give the opportunity to ask questions and explain things
back to you, This allows the child to mentally manipulate information
Formal Operational: 11 years to adulthood
o This stage brings cognition to its final form
o The individual no longer requires concrete objects to make rational
judgments
o Individuals are capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning
o Teaching for adolescents may be wide ranging because they are able
to consider many possibilities from several perspectives
Psychosexual Development: Sigmund Freud
This theory views the personality as consisting of three parts
o Id- the basic sexual energy that is present at birth and drives the
seeking of pleasure
o Ego- the realistic part of a person, which develops during infancy and
searches for acceptable methods to meet impulses
o Superego- The moral and ethical system that develops in childhood
and contains values as well as conscious thoughts.
Sexual feelings are present in different forms depending on age.
Human nature has two sides
o Rational intellect- being able to think about others, and do what is
right
o Irrational desires- following the unconscious mind, which is driven by
uncontrollable instincts that are irrational and pleasure seeking
Stages of the Theory:
o Oral: birth to 1 year
Preoccupied with activities associated wit hthe mouth
Sexual urges gratified with oral behavior: sucking, biting,
chewing, and eating
Children that don’t have their oral needs met may become
thumb suckers or nail bitters
o Anal: 1 to 3 years
The child is preoccupied with the genitals
Curious about childbirth, masturbation, and anatomic
differences
The penis- girls experience penis envy and wish they had one;
boys suffer from castration anxiety
Children develop strong incestuous desire for caregiver of the
opposite gender
Oedipal Complex- attachment of boy to his mother
Electra complex- attachment of girl to her father
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