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Chapter 40

BIOL 1202 Chapter 40

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201
All Professors

1Bio 1202CHAPTER 40Basic Principles of Animal Form and FunctionAnimal form and function are correlated at all levels of organizationPhysical laws especially physics of exchanging materials with environment limits range of animal formsExchange in Simple Organisms see fig 403Singlecelled organisms Exchange material by diffusion Entire plasma membrane is exposed to mediumMulticellular organisms with a sac body plan Body wall is only 2 celllayers thick Exchange is by diffusionExchange in Complex Animals see fig 404Large complex animals have highly folded or branched internal surfacesThis increases surface areaCell in these surfaces are specialized for exchanging materialsThe basic scheme of organization involves cells organized into tissues organized into organs organized into organ systemsTissueComposed of cells with similar structure and function orNoncellular components made by the cells ie bone and cartilageThere are four general types of tissue see 405EpithelialConnectiveMuscleNerveEpithelial tissueCells form continuous sheets called membranesMembranes cover the body and line all body cavitiesThe main function of the epithelial tissue is to form a barrier and the cells are closely joined
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