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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 (got 93% on the test)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051

Chapter 8 Transcription Translation and BioinformaticsRNA SynthesisoTranscription making a RNA copy of part of a DNA strandoDifferences between DNARNA DNA made of deoxyribonucleotidesDouble StrandedNitrogen base ThymineSugarDeoxyriboseRNA made of ribonucleotidesSingle StrandedNitrogen baseUracilSugarRiboseThree types of RNA 1mRNAmessenger encodes proteinsaverage 10001500 bases long2tRNA transferCarries amino acids to the ribosome to build the protein during translation 3rRNA ribosomalComponent of ribosome site of protein synthesis oTemplate strand DNA strand that is being copied into complementary mRNAoRNA polymeraseenzyme that transcribes DNA into RNA by adding ribonucleotides onto 3 end of growing RNA chainneeds no primerrecognizes specific start sequence on DNA called the promoter and starts transcribing DNA into RNA at that siteoBacterial RNA polymerase 4 subunitsalpha 2 copiesbetabetasigma functions to help core enzyme locate promoter beginning of genemultiple sigma factors over 100 known so far from numerous species70 housekeeping sigma factor used for most essential genesguides RNA polymerase32 active when cell is stressed by heat heatshock responseProcess of transcriptiono3 phasesInitiationElongationTerminationoTranscription Initiation1
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