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BIOL 2051 (13)
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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
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Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function 1Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function Read 3337Basic cellular structures1Cytoplasm2Cytoplasmic membrane3Genetic information nucleus for eukaryotes nucleoid for prokaryotes 4Ribosomessite of protein synthesis5Cell wallfound in plantsmost prokaryotes not in animalsTwo types of cells 1 Prokaryotesimpler internal structurelack membraneenclosed organelles Ex BacteriaArchaea 2 Eukaryotelargermore complexmembranebound organelles nucleus chloroplast mitochondria etcEx algae fungi protozoa plants animals VirusesNoncellularReproduce only inside a host cellLack many characteristics of living things cant do anything outside of host cell etcEx HIV virus Rhinoviruses colds Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function 2The Bacterial CellCytoplasm surrounded by envelopeoCytoplasm contains DNA in nucleoid Envelope has lipid membrane boundaryoPlus structural cell wall in most casesBacterial cell structuresCytoplasmic membrane fluid selective permeability barrier made of phospholipids andassociated proteins that form a bilayer with hydrophilic exteriors and a hydrophobic interioroCM is a phospholipid bilayer each layer is a leafletoPhospholipidglycerol with ester links to 2 fatty acidsHydrophilic group faces cytoplasm or periplasm Hydrophobicfatty acids line up inside membraneoAttraction of nonpolar fatty acid portions of one phospholipid layer for other layer result in selective permeability of cell membraneoIntegral membrane proteins span membraneoPeripheral membrane proteins are bound to surface of membraneGrampositive bacterial cell envelope
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