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BIOL 2051 (13)
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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 (got 96%)

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 2051
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture Growth and Development Microbial NutritionAll life requiresElectron flow to drive all life processesDrives ions into out of cellsUsed to create ATP Energy to move electronsMaterials to make cell partsNutrientsCHONPS carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorous sulfurElectron flow requiresSource of electronsLithotrophs Inorganic molecules are electron donors ex IronOrganotrophsOrganic molecules are electron donors ex glucosewhat we add to culture mediaUltimate electron acceptorInorganic molecules ex nitrate or oxygenSaid to grow by respirationOrganic molecules ex pyruvateSaid to grow by fermentationSource of energyPhototrophs plants cyanobacteria Light energy excites electronsExcited molecules are electron donorschemotrophsChemicals are electron donorsOxidation of chemical oOxidationdonation of electrons ultimately used as an energy sourceNutrientsMacronutrients Major elements in cell macromoleculesoC H O N P SIons necessary for protein function222oMg Ca Fe KMicronutrientsTrace elements Co Cu Zn etc Growth factors organic compounds necessary for enzyme functionDifference bw trace elements and growth factorsoGrowth factors and organic COMPOUNDSoTrace are just elements from periodic tableCarbon large amount needed by cells to form organic compounds amino acids fatty acids sugarsnitrogenase bases to carry out cellular functions Autotrophsprokaryotes that can make all cellular structures from CO2Heterotrophsmust obtain carbon from organic compounds most prokaryotesNitrogenneeded by cells for amino acids nitrogenous basesother cell constituentsNitrogenfixing prokaryotes capable of using atmospheric nitrogen gasMost prokaryotes obtain nitrogen from compounds such as ammonia and nitrateEnergy sourcesChemoorganotrophs energy from oxidation removing electrons of organic compoundsChemolithotrophsenergy from oxidation of inorganic compounds Only in prokaryotes AdvantageoLess competition in certain environmentsPhototrophscontain pigments that allow them to use light as an energy sourceNo worry about energy source as long as they have light
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