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Chapter 5

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
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Chapter 5Tuesday September 14 2010900 AM Chapter 5Environmental Influences and Control of Microbial GrowthEnvironmental factors that affect microbial growthoTemperatureoPressureoOsmolarity salt or sugar concentrationsopHoOxygen TemperatureTemperature is a major environmental factor controlling microbial growth oCardinal temperatures minimum optimummaximum temps for an organism oMinimum temperaturecellular processes slow cytoplasmic membranes stiffen oMaximum temperature proteins start to denatureoOptimum temperature organism grows best between minmaxMicroorganisms can be grouped by the temperature ranges they requireoPsychrophilesColdOC20C oMesophiles we are mesophiles20C45C oThermophiles 40C80C oExtreme thermophiles 65C113C Psychrophiles found in constantly cold environments oExample Chlamydomonas snow algaeoMolecular adaptations of psychrophiles Membranes have high content of unsaturated fatty acidssemifluid at low temperaturesProteins are more flexible compared to mesophiles or thermophiles Cryoprotectants can be used to preserve microbial cultures at low temperature10 DMSO Dimethylsulfoxide10 glycerol are commonly used in laboratories to preserve microbial cultures for long time in freezers Mesophilesmidrange optimum temperatureoFound in warmblooded animalsmany terrestrialaquatic environmentsoExamples most organisms you are familiar with such as Escherichia coli found in the human intestines There are only 2 strains of pathogenic E coli Thermophiles
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