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Chapter 20

Chapter 20 Resources (aced the test and got 96%)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2083

Chapter 20 Electron Transport and Oxidative PhosphorylationVocabularyATP Synthase the enzyme responsible for production of ATP in mitochondriaChemiosmotic Coupling the mechanism for coupling electron transport to oxidative phosphorylation it requires a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membraneCoenzyme Q an oxidationreduction coenzyme in mitochondrial electron transportConformational Coupling a mechanism for coupling electron transport to oxidative phosphorylation that depends on a conformational change in the ATP synthetaseCytochrome any one of a group of hemecontaining proteins in the electron transport chainGlycerol Phosphate Shuttle a mechanism for transferring electrons from NADH in the cytosol to FADH2 in the mitochondrionMalateAspartate Shuttle a mechanism for transferring electrons from NADH in the cytosol to NADH in the mitochondrionQ Cycle a series of reactions in the electron transport chain that provides the link between twoelectron transfers and oneelectron transfersProton Gradient the difference between the hydrogen ion concentrations in the mitochondrial matrix and that in the intermembrane space which is the basis of coupling between oxidation and phosphorylationPO Ratio the ratio of ATP produced by oxidative phosphorylation to oxygen atoms consumed in electron transportReduction Potential a standard voltage that indicates the tendency of a reduction half reaction to take placeRespiratory Complexes the multienzyme systems in the inner mitochondrial membrane that carry out the reactions of electron transportUncoupler a substance that overcomes the proton gradient in mitochondria allowing electron transport to proceed in the absence of phosphorylationChapter 20 Electron Transport and Oxidative PhosphorylationChapter SummaryWhat is the importance of mitochondrial structure in ATP productionIn the final stages of aerobic metabolism electrons are transferred from NADH to oxygen the ultimate electron acceptor in a series of oxidationreduction reactions known as the electron transport chain In the process protons are pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane This series of events depends on the presence of oxygen in the final step This pathway allows for the reoxidation of the reduced electron carriers produced in glycolysis the citric acid cycle and several other catabolic pathways and is the true source of the ATPs produced by catabolism Phosphorylation depends on the compartmented structure of mitochondriaHow can reduction potentials be used to predict the direction of electron transport The overall reaction of the electron transport chain shows a very large negative DGdue to the large differences in reduction potentials between the reactions involving NADH and those involving oxygen If NADH were to reduce oxygen directly the DEwould be more than1 V In reality many redox reactions are in between and the correct order of events in the electron transport chain was predicted by comparing the reduction potentials of the individual reactions long before the order was established experimentallyWhat reactions take place in the respiratory complexesFour separate respiratory complexes can be isolated from the inner mitochondrial membrane Each can carry out the reactions of a portion of the electron transport chain In addition to the respiratory complexes two electron carriers coenzyme Q and cytochrome c are not bound to the complexes but are free to move within and along the membrane respectively Complex I accomplishes the reoxidation of NADH and sends electrons to coenzyme Q Complex II reoxidizes FADH2 and also sends electrons to CoQ Complex III involves the Q cycle and shuttles electrons to cytochrome c Complex IV takes the electrons from cytochrome c and passes them to oxygen in the final step of electron transportWhat is the nature of the ironcontaining proteins of electron transportA number of ironcontaining proteins are part of the electron transport chain In the cytochrome proteins the iron is bound to a heme group In other proteins the iron is bound to the protein along with sulfur
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