Chapter 7 (98% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2160
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Chapter 7 Nerve CellsElectric SignalingI Organization of the Nervous System 71II Cells of the Nervous SystemNeurons excitable cellsOligodendrocytesMyelin glial cellsClassification of NeuronsFunctionaloBased upon direction impulses conductedSensory or AfferentConduct impulses from sensory or visceral receptors to CNSMotor or EfferentConduct impulses out of CNS to effector organs include motor neurons extending to skeletal muscle and neurons in ANSAssociation or InterneuronsLocated entirely within the CNS99 of all neuronsProcess sensory info from afferentSend commands to effector neurons Carry out thoughts emotionsmemoryComponents of a NeuronSoma cell bodyocontains nucleus and most organellesDendrites incomingoreception of incoming informationAxonoutgoingotransmits electrical impulses called action potentials over relatively long distancesAxon hillock owhere axon originates and action potentials initiatedoall messengers must be strong enough to reach this point or message wont be translatedAxon terminal synaptic knobs or boutonsoreleases neurotransmitter made in somaSynapseoSpace between a neuronanother cell neuron muscle glandCollateralsoBranches of axonStructure of Typical Neurons 72 DendritesCellBodyAxoncan only move in that direction in all animals but jellyfishIon Channels in NeuronsType of ChannelExampleOpen or CloseLocationFunctionLeak ChannelsNaKAlways openThroughout Resting neuronMembrane PotentialLigandgated CaResponse to DendritesCell Initiate Synaptic Channelsligand bindingBodyPotentialsVoltagegated NaKResponse to Axon HillockAction PotentialsChannelschange in Membrane PotentialCaResponse to Axon TerminalRelease of NTarrival of Action Potential at Axon TerminalGlial Cells more glial cells than neurons support system for neuronsAstrocytesEpendymal CellsMicrogliaOligodendrocytesSchwann Cells Supporting Cells in CNSAstrocytesoMost abundant glial celloVascular processes cover capillariesoContribute to BloodBrainBarrieroRegulate external environment of K and pHoMay secrete EPO for increased oxygenation of the brainoFeet of astrocytes assist tight junctions in protection of the brain from outside substancesInhibit chemotherapyoDevelopment of neural connectionsoPossibly modulate synaptic activityoRemove neurotransmitter from synaptic cleftoCommunicate to neurons through chemical messengersoMaintain normal electrolyte composition of ISF in CNSoProtect neurons against toxic substancesoxidative stressMicrogliaoPhagocytes
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