Chapter 1 Notes (97% in the course

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 3090

Chapter 1 Life Begins with CellsCell Theory All living things are composed of cells and their products SchleidenSchwann 1838 German physiologistsVirusesoViruses lack cells just protein and DNARNAoRequire host mobile NO CELLSOmnis cellula e cellula all cells come from cells Rudolph Virchow 1855oBefore this it was believed that cells formed freecell formation similar to the way that ice crystals formed spontaneous generationModern Cell Theory1All living things are made up of cells2The cell is the structured and functional unit of all living things3All cells come from preexisting cells by division mitosis Meiosis gametes4Cells contain hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell through division5All cells are basically the same in chemical composition6All energy flow metabolismbiochem occurs within the cellBiological Systems the activity of the organism as a whole is the sum of the activities and interactions of essentially independent cell unitsThe cell closest thing to an autonomous biological unit that existsEvolutionA change in the genetic makeup of a population over time as a result of natural selectionProcess by which favorable hereditary traits become more common in a population and less favorable traits become less commonThe single most important concept in the field of biologyRather have more advantageous phenotype than genotype PHYSICAL MANIFESTATIONEukaryotes and Archaea diverged from bacteria billions of years before they diverged from each otherArchaea area basic singlecelled organisms FIG 13Prokaryotes Single celled organisms that consist of a single closed compartment surrounded by a plasma membrane lack a true nucleus and have relatively simple internal organization No membrane bound organellesBacteriaoEscherichia coli E coliCan be unicellular or consist of a chain of cellsNucleoid Bacterial DNA that is not enclosed in a membrane unlike the nucleus in eukaryotesoE coli and some other bacteria are surrounded by 2 membranes separated by the periplasmic spaceoThere is also a thin cell wall situated directly external to the inner membraneoFIG 12a prokaryotic cell E coliProkaryotic celloFIG on moodleoInvagination of the cell membrane that occurs prior to cell divisionseptumArchaeaoSingle celled microorganismsoSeparated from bacteria through extensive DNA analysisoCell membranes have chemical properties that differ dramatically from those of bacteria and eukaryotesMany grow in harsh environmentsHalophiles high salt high osmolarityThermoacidophiles high tempsGrow in hot sulfur springs 80 degrees Celcius and a pH often below 2Methanophiles oxygen deficient environments combine water with CO2 to make CH4
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