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Chapter 18

Biology Chapter 18 19 20 (98% on the test)

28 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1002
Professor
All

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Biology Chapter 18-Systematics 09/10/2013
General BiologyBIOL 1002
Katherine ‘Kate’ Farrah, Ph.D.Instructor of Biology
Outline for today’s class
• Introduction
• Syllabus
Systematics- Chapter 18
Syllabus quiz
• Syllabus
BIOL1002 Syllabus 2013 K. Farrah.doc
Syllabus additions
Clickers are required and must be registered by next Tuesday
Testing center website: http://www.cae.lsu.edu/default.asp
Incomplete outlines of lectures posted to Moodle- bring with you to class
Syllabus quiz at end….
Systematics: The Science of Biological Diversity and its Evolutionary
History
Goal: Discover all the branches of the phylogenetic tree of life
Tree of life- relationship of all organisms with one ancestral species at base
Why do we care about systematics?
Economic- money
Public health- WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network-strains of different viruses
Legal- ex. Jeremy Brown and HIV-went to court to prove that the defendants strain gave
everyone HIV
It’s cool!
Topics of Chapter 18
How Are Organisms Named and Classified?
What Are the Domains of Life?
Why Do Classifications Change?
How Many Species Exist?
Taxonomy: What’s in a name?Alice in Wonderland
Taxonomy- branch of biology with the goal of naming and classifying all species
Catnip example
Formal name:
Nepeta floribus interrupte spicatus pedunculatis (meaning “Nepeta with flowers
in an interrupted pedunculate spike”)
Linnaeus wrote “cataria” in the margin of the text
Name became Nepeta cataria
Starting point of nomenclature as it exists today.
Allowed for easy identification of plants, by placing every genus into an artificial class and
order
Marks the beginning of a great upsurge in the popularity of science, and arguably is
amongst the most important publications in biology ever
-cataria is the specific epithet
The two-part scientific name of an organism is formed from the genus and specific
epithet
A genus is a group that includes a number of very closely related species
A species within a genus includes populations of organisms that can potentially
interbreed under natural conditions
Three Species of Bluebird
Classification originated as a hierarchy of categories
Each species was placed in a series of hierarchically arranged categories on the basis of
resemblance to other species
The categories form a nested hierarchy in which each level included all the other
levels below it
The Linnaean classification system came to include eight major categories or taxonomic
ranks
Taxa within categories: Example Macbridea caroliniana
Homo sapiens
Class- Mammalia
Specific epithet- sapiens
Family-Hominidae
Domain- Eukarya
Kingdom- Animalia
Order- Primates
Phylum-Chordata
• Genus-Homo
Put in order of most to least inclusive…..
Modern classification emphasizes patterns of evolutionary descent
In 1859, Charles Darwin (1809–1882) published On the Origin of Species
This work demonstrated that all life is related by common ancestry
Taxonomic categories should reflect evolutionary relatedness
The more categories two organisms share, the closer their evolutionary relationship

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Description
BiologyChapter18Systematics09102013GeneralBiologyBIOL1002KatherineKateFarrahPhDInstructorofBiologyOutlinefortodaysclassIntroductionSyllabusSystematicsChapter18SyllabusquizSyllabusBIOL1002Syllabus2013KFarrahdocSyllabusadditionsClickersarerequiredandmustberegisteredbynextTuesdayTestingcenterwebsitehttpwwwcaelsuedudefaultaspIncompleteoutlinesoflecturespostedtoMoodlebringwithyoutoclassSyllabusquizatendSystematicsTheScienceofBiologicalDiversityanditsEvolutionaryHistoryGoalDiscoverallthebranchesofthephylogenetictreeoflifeTreeofliferelationshipofallorganismswithoneancestralspeciesatbaseWhydowecareaboutsystematicsEconomicmoneyPublichealthWHOGlobalInfluenzaSurveillanceNetworkstrainsofdifferentvirusesLegalexJeremyBrownandHIVwenttocourttoprovethatthedefendantsstraingaveeveryoneHIVItscoolTopicsofChapter18HowAreOrganismsNamedandClassifiedWhatAretheDomainsofLifeWhyDoClassificationsChangeHowManySpeciesExistTaxonomyWhatsinanameAliceinWonderlandTaxonomybranchofbiologywiththegoalofnamingandclassifyingallspeciesCatnipexampleFormalnamemeaningwithflowersNepetafloribusinterruptespicatuspedunculatisNepetainaninterruptedpedunculatespikeLinnaeuswrotecatariainthemarginofthetextNamebecameNepetacatariaStartingpointofnomenclatureasitexiststodayAllowedforeasyidentificationofplantsbyplacingeverygenusintoanartificialclassandorderMarksthebeginningofagreatupsurgeinthepopularityofscienceandarguablyisamongstthemostimportantpublicationsinbiologyevercatariaisthespecificepithetThetwopartscientificnameofanorganismisformedfromthegenusandspecificepithetAgenusisagroupthatincludesanumberofverycloselyrelatedspeciesAspecieswithinagenusincludespopulationsoforganismsthatcanpotentiallyinterbreedundernaturalconditions
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