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Chapter

DNA


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Professor
All

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Energy Tranformations:
laws of thermodynamics
IMPORTANT REACTIONS AND MOLECULES:
Redox Reactions:
reduction: Addition of electrons to a molecule (stores energy in reduced compounds)
oxidation: Removal of electrons from a molecule (releases energy from reduced
compounds)
These reactions always occur together:
Energy Transporting Molecules:
NAD
NAD+ + 2H <------> NADH + H+
(NADox) (NADre)
FAD
FAD + 2H <------> FADH2
(FADox) (FADre)
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Local transport and the cells energy currency
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
ADP + Pi --------------> ATP ( G = +7.3 Kcal/mole)
Two mechanisms for phosphorylation
1) Substrate level Phosphorylation:
2) Oxidative Phosphorylation:
CATABOLISM OF GLUCOSE:
Summary equation:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---------- 6CO2 + 6H2O G=-686 Kcal/mole
oxidation of glucose: removal of electrons (hydrogen electrons, often w/protons H+)
How Do you make ATP
ATP Synthase
The chemiosmotic gradient is both a concentration gradient and a voltage gradient .
This results in a large free energy gradient
Where do the reduced molecules come from?
Kreb's Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
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