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Chapter 1

BIOL 1201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Multicellular Organism, Chordate, Homeostasis

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201

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Bio. 1201 Chapter 1 8/26
About 1.8 million species have been identified and named.
With so many different specifies there are many different unifying similarities.
1—Evolution is a central theme in biology
- the ability to evolve is built into organisms
Evolution is a change in a genetic make-up of a population over time as a result of natural
Natural Selection is the driving force behind evolution
Variation: we’re all different
Competition: we will survive
- There are variations within every species (ex. some are tall some are short)
- Means some are “better” suited to survival (natural selection)
- Variability comes from genes and genes are inherited
Conclusion: more “good” genes survive and therefore populations change
2—Life contains an order of structural levels with each level building on levels beneath it
>>> Hierarchy of biological organization
1.) Biosphere: all of the environments on earth that are inhabited by life (land, water, all
layers of atmosphere)
2.) Ecosystems: all living things in a particular area, along with non-living environmental
components with which life interacts (soil, water, air, light)
3.) Community: entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem
4.) Population: individuals of a species living within the bounds of a particular area

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5.) Organism: individual living things
6.) Organs & Systems: body part consisting of 2 or more tissues, which carries out a
specific function within an organism (liver, kidney)
7.) Tissue: group of cells from similar embryonic origins that combine to form organs
8.) Cell: fundamental unit of structure and function in life (neuron, hepatocyte)
9.) Organelle: various functional components that make up cells (chloroplast, mitochondria)
10.) Molecule: chemical structure consisting of 2 or more atoms (chlorophyll in plants)
11.) Atom: basic unit of matter (hydrogen)
12.) Subatomic particle: all units of matter smaller than the atom (protons, neutrons,
3—Each level of biological organization has emergent properties
Emergent property: a property that emerges as a result of interactions between components as
complexity increases if you mix all components of a chloroplast together in a test tube,
photosynthesis will not occur
- Molecules must interact in a specific way
- With each step in a biological hierarchy new emergent properties are
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