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Chapter 4

BIOL 1201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Hydroxy Group, Aldehyde, Ketone

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201

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Chapter 4 Notes
Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Living organisms are composed of carbon-based chemicals
Organic molecules are molecules which contain carbon and hydrogen
Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of molecules
Because of its structure, carbon can form an amazing array of complex molecules
Carbon atoms have a valence of 4, meaning it can bind to 2,3, or 4 other atoms
Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain only hydrogen and carbon
Major components of fossil fuels
Generally hydrophobic because C-C and C-H bonds are nonpolar
No dipole moment exists between the 2 atoms
Three-Dimensional Structural Features – Isomers
Isomers are molecules which contain the same atoms but have those atoms arranged in a different
Structural isomers: are molecules which contain the same atoms but have a different shape
because the atoms are arranged differently
Same formula, different connections (Ex: butane and isobutane)
Geometric Isomers: are molecules which contain the same atoms but the groups around a C-C
double bond are arranged differently
Always going to have atoms arranged differently around a c-c double bond”
Same formula, same connections, different arrangement around a double bond
Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of one another
Same formula, same connections, different arrangements in space
The resulting mirror image compounds may have entirely different biological activities
“orientation in space is different”
Thalidomide: drug used to treat morning sickness in the 1950s
R- enantiomer
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