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Chapter 40

BIOL 1201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 40: Connective Tissue, Loose Connective Tissue, Body Plan

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201

of 8
Chapter 40 – Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function 09/02/2014
Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization
Physical laws, especially physics of exchanging material with environment, limits range of animal forms
Exchange in simple Organisms
Single-celled organisms
Exchange material by diffusion
Entire plasma membrane is exposed to medium
Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan
Body wall is only 2 cell layers thick
Exchange is by diffusion
Exchange in Complex Animals
Large, complex animals have highly folded or branched internal surfaces specialized for exchanging
This increases surface area
Epithelial Tissue
Covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body
Cells are closely joined
Connective Tissue
Functions mainly to bind and support other tissues
Composed of sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix
Major types:
Loose connective tissue
Adipose tissue
Fibrous connective tissue
Muscle Tissue
Composed of long cells called muscle fibers capable of contracting in response to nerve signals
3 types: skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Nervous Tissue
Sense stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal
Nerve cell response for receiving and transmitting is the neuron
Organ Systems
Organ systems carry out the major body functions of most animals
Control and Coordination
Animals need to coordinate activities among organs
Two systems responsible:
Endocrine: slow response, but long lasting
Nervous: quick response, but short lived
Feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals
Interstitial Fluid
Fluid that fills spaces between cells
Internal environment
Exchange occurs with cells here
Maintaining internal variables within an acceptable range
Regulating and Conforming
Uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external fluctuation