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Chapter

Ch 4


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1201
Professor
All

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Chapter 4
Aqueous
Reactions and
Solution
Stoichiometry

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Components of a solution:
Solvent (present in greater proportion)
Solute (present in lesser proportion)
A solution is made when one substance (the
solute) is dissolved in another (the solvent).
The solute can be solid (s), liquid (l), or gas (g)
the solvent is almost always a liquid.
If the solvent is water, the term aqueous (aq) is
used to describe the solution.
A Saturated solution means that the maximum
amount solute has been added to the solvent &
no more will go into solution. (moles/liter)
General Properties of Aqueous Solutions
Dissociation = pre-formed ions in a solid move
apart in solution. (usually has reaction)
NaCl(s) + H2O(l) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Ionization = neutral substance forms ions in
solution.
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) + H2(g)

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Ionic vs. Molecular Compounds in Water
When an IONIC (metal & nonmetal) compound
dissolves in water, the ions dissociate and the ions
are designated with (aq).
This means that in solution, the solid no longer exists
as a well ordered arrangement of ions in close contact
with each other.
Are there any limitations?
If the attraction between the ions in the solid
(solute) and water molecules (solvent) overcomes
the ionic attractions in the solid, the salt will be
soluble (MORE in Chap 13)
How does this happen?
Each ion is surrounded/attacked by water
molecules, THE SOLVENT.
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