GEOG 2050 Chapter : Chapter 6, 7, 9 Exam 3

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15 Mar 2019
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Chapter 6 in class notes 10/14/2013 5:22:00 PM
Key Concepts
Air pressure
Mercury Barometer
Aneriod Barometer
Wind
Anemometer
Wind vane
Beaufort wind scale
Isobars
Pressure Gradient force
How do we determine air movement?
Tambora
Eruption 1815
Volcanic explosively index (VEI)(1-8)
1816 “The year without a summer”
agricultural crops failed and livestock died
o the worst famine of the 19th century
o sunsets had bright vivid colors due to dusk scattering in the
atmosphere
atmospheric Circulation
Mt. Pinatubo erupts
o June 1991
o 2nd largest eruption in 20th century VEI=6
Air Pressure
Molecules in air create pressure
Gas laws
o P=RpT
P=pressure
T=temperature
P=Density
=Mass/Volume
R=gas constant
Mercury Barometers
Early way to measure pressure
Aneroid Barometer
How we measure pressure today
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Air pressure Measurements
Milibar (mn or mbar)***
o Force per m Squared
o Commonly used in meterology/Weather
Pascals (Pa)
o 1kPa=10Mbar
o scientific
atmosphere (atm)
o SI unit
o 1 atm=1013.25 mbar
mmHg or inches of Hg
o mbar*0.02953 =inches of Hg
PSI (pounds square inch)
Measured with barometers
Range
o 890 to 1050 mbar
average sea-level pressure (slp)
o 1013.25 mbar
o 29.92 mmHg
o 101.32 kPa
Changes in Pressure are least noticeable, but are important in
producing weather!
Air Pressure Readings
Lowest in US, 882 mbar
o Hurricane Wilma 2005
Earth’s record low, 870 mbar
o Typhoon Tip Oct. 1979
Highest in US, 1065 mbar
o Barrow AK Jan 1970
Earth’s records high, 1084 mbar
o Siberia, Dec 1968
Wind
Movement of air
Measure speed
o Anemometer
o Miles per hour (mph)
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o Kilometer per hour (kmph)
o Meters per second (mps)
o Knots (Nautical mile/hour)
Measure direction
o Wind vane
o 10m (33ft) above surface
Wind direction
Meteorology
o Direction the wind is from
Westerly wind from the west
Degrees from North
o Westerly wind is 270 degrees
Figure 6.5
Beaufort Wind Scale weekly activity
Developed in 1806 by Sir Francis Beaufort of England
Describe wind from wave observation, developed later for land
o Table 6.1
Ocean
Pressure increases with depth
1 decibars (dbar) =~1m
depth can be determined by pressure
Currents (Similar to wind)
o Current meters
Speed
Direction
Energy budget by latitude
Unequal heating different densities, air masses move to reach
equilibrium
Convection
Major way we move energy around the atmosphere
Driving Forces of Wind/Ocean GOLD STAR!!!
Gravity
o ~uniform world wide
o holds temperature
Pressure gradient force
o High to low pressure
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Document Summary

Pinatubo erupts: june 1991, 2nd largest eruption in 20th century vei=6. Air pressure: molecules in air create pressure, gas laws, p=rpt, p=pressure, t=temperature, p=density. Mercury barometers: early way to measure pressure. Aneroid barometer: how we measure pressure today. Air pressure readings: lowest in us, 882 mbar, hurricane wilma 2005, earth"s record low, 870 mbar, typhoon tip oct. 1979, highest in us, 1065 mbar, barrow ak jan 1970, earth"s records high, 1084 mbar, siberia, dec 1968. Wind: movement of air, measure speed, anemometer, miles per hour (mph, kilometer per hour (kmph, meters per second (mps, knots (nautical mile/hour, measure direction, wind vane, 10m (33ft) above surface. Wind direction: meteorology, direction the wind is from, westerly wind from the west, degrees from north, westerly wind is 270 degrees, figure 6. 5. Beaufort wind scale weekly activity: developed in 1806 by sir francis beaufort of england, describe wind from wave observation, developed later for land, table 6. 1.

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