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Chapter 2

Chapter Two

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2040

Chapter TwoSocial CognitionThinking about the Social WorldSocial cognition how people interpret analyze remember and use information about the social worldSchemas mental frameworks centering around a specific theme that helps organize social informationThis is how you organize information about a specific themeIts easier to understand schema than the individual bits and piecesExample restaurant you think about food drinks waiters menu hostess silverware kitchen staff a check tip etcWhen you see a restaurant a lot of information is brought upAll this information is stored under the schema of restaurantYou may also have instances from your own life saved under this schema ie your favorite restaurantIt is easier to organize this information underneath restaurant and understand than to think about each piece individually It is possible to have false schemas example stereotypesInformation consistent with a schema you have already created is easily understood under a schema it is easier to encodeAssimilation when you get new information that you encode under an existing schemaExample a child has a dog and places it under dog schema four legs head and tailHe sees a cow and calls it a dog because he wants to incorporate it under his dog schemaWhen you run into information that cant be organized into your schema you make accommodations by modifying your schema or creating a new oneIf a schema is not accurate it is hard to disconfirm itThree basic processesAttentionEncodingRetrievalPerseverance effect contradictory information doesnt alter schemaExample his friend didnt like sorority girlsthree of his grad assistants were in sororities and very hard workersthis information is contradictory to his schema about sorority girlshowever his schema didnt alter because he had held it for a long timeSelffulfilling prophecy behaving in a manner that makes beliefs come trueWhen you believe something it may or may not be right but your behavior confirms or elicits the behavior you believeExample Rosenthal experimentRosenthal was interested in selffulfilling prophecies and went to an elementary schoolThey tested everyone in the school on an intelligence test and then went to the teachers and pointed out students in the class and told them they expected great things from themThey left it at that and came back at the end of the school year and tested again those students did well againThere wasnt a real
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