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Chapter 10

PSYC 3083 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Little Albert Experiment, Behaviorism, Parodos

16 Pages
82 Views
Winter 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3083
Professor
All
Chapter
10

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Chapter 10 Behavioral Approaches to Therapy
Foundations of Behavior Therapy
- foundations lie in learning theory – learning principles
- is a heavy emphasis on scientific method
fundamental assumption is - all behavior determined AND
variables determining it can be discovered & changed
- there is insistance that abnormal “symp” is the d/o & not
a symbol of unconscious conflict
diff from those who say symptom is manifestation of
unconscious processes
i.e., No Hidden Meanings
behaviorists say symptom is the d/o
- say same laws of learning apply 2 all behaviors –
“normal” & “abnormal”
- say abnormal behavior simply normal response 2 abnormal
learning conditions
i.e. – we learn & keep bad behaviors b/c of poor learning
environments/reinforcement schedules
- say change abnormal behavior by changing learning conditions
Behaviorism vs trad psychotherapy (psychoanayl/ct centered)
- Behaviorism rejects mentalistic notions of mind
- Emphasizes objectively observable behaviors & situations
- Strict behaviorists say can explain behavior
W/O using person’s cogs/mental processes as
explanation
don’t deny existence/importance of thoughts &
feelings BUT
say these R internal behaviors & should B subjective to same
scientific investigation as external behaviors
until they R, have no explanatory value
thus, emphasis is on observable behavior
Brief History of Behavior Therapy
- Watson experiment - class conditioning fear of white rats N Little Albert
Little Albert liked 2 play w/white rat
in experiment, paired presentation of rat w/loud noise
after a few pairings, Little Albert cried @ sight of rat
soon showed same fear 2 any white, furry object
- Thus, demonstrated abnormal behavior (phobia) could be learned
Watson said, probably many phobias are conditioned
emotional reactions
Case of Little Peter
2
- Jones demonstrated phobias could B unlearned
- taught 3 year old boy w/a fear of rabbits 2 like them
- brought caged rabbit closer & closer while Peter was
eating
fear was grad eliminated
- supposedly b/c feared object became assoc w/pleasure of
eating
Behavior therapy as a school of therapy
-this occurred when Joseph Wolpe began promoting his
style of therapy
- Wolpe taught pts 2 induce deep muscle relaxation
w/phobic situation
- - known as systematic desensitization
method was immediate hit among US clinical psychologists
- behaviorism became a hit in US
REASON:
American psychos realized here was a theory/tech that
could challenge psychoanalysis N explanatory & treatment
power AND
behav therapies promised:
- 2 B quick
- 2 B relatively inexpensive
- 2 B effective way 2 meet increased demand 4
services following WWII
Principles of Behaviorism – Principles of Learning
- traditional learning theory 2 basic types of conditioning/learning
3

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Description
Chapter 10 Behavioral Approaches to TherapyFoundations of Behavior Therapyfoundations lie in learning theorylearning principlesis a heavy emphasis on scientific methodfundamental assumption isall behavior determined AND variables determining it can be discoveredchangedthere is insistance that abnormal symp is the donot a symbol of unconscious conflictdiff from those who say symptom is manifestation ofunconscious processesieNo Hidden Meanings behaviorists say symptom is the dosay same laws of learning apply 2 all behaviorsnormal abnormalsay abnormal behavior simply normal response 2 abnormallearning conditions iewe learnkeep bad behaviors bc of poor learning environmentsreinforcement schedulessay change abnormal behavior by changing learning conditions Behaviorism vs trad psychotherapy psychoanaylct centeredBehaviorism rejects mentalistic notions of mind Emphasizes objectively observable behaviorssituationsStrict behaviorists say can explain behavior WO using persons cogsmental processes as explanation dont deny existenceimportance of thoughts feelings BUTsay these R internal behaviorsshould B subjective to samescientific investigation as external behaviorsuntil they R have no explanatory value thus emphasis is on observable behaviorBrief History of Behavior TherapyWatson experimentclass conditioning fear of white rats N Little Albert Little Albert liked 2 play wwhite ratin experiment paired presentation of rat wloud noise after a few pairings Little Albert criedsight of ratsoon showed same fear 2 any white furry objectThus demonstrated abnormal behavior phobia could be learnedWatson said probably many phobias are conditioned emotional reactionsCase of Little Peter2
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