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Chapter 10

PSYC 3083 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Little Albert Experiment, Behaviorism, Parodos

16 pages72 viewsWinter 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3083
Professor
All
Chapter
10

Page:
of 16
Chapter 10 Behavioral Approaches to Therapy
Foundations of Behavior Therapy
- foundations lie in learning theory – learning principles
- is a heavy emphasis on scientific method
fundamental assumption is - all behavior determined AND
variables determining it can be discovered & changed
- there is insistance that abnormal “symp” is the d/o & not
a symbol of unconscious conflict
diff from those who say symptom is manifestation of
unconscious processes
i.e., No Hidden Meanings
behaviorists say symptom is the d/o
- say same laws of learning apply 2 all behaviors –
“normal” & “abnormal”
- say abnormal behavior simply normal response 2 abnormal
learning conditions
i.e. – we learn & keep bad behaviors b/c of poor learning
environments/reinforcement schedules
- say change abnormal behavior by changing learning conditions
Behaviorism vs trad psychotherapy (psychoanayl/ct centered)
- Behaviorism rejects mentalistic notions of mind
- Emphasizes objectively observable behaviors & situations
- Strict behaviorists say can explain behavior
W/O using person’s cogs/mental processes as
explanation
don’t deny existence/importance of thoughts &
feelings BUT
say these R internal behaviors & should B subjective to same
scientific investigation as external behaviors
until they R, have no explanatory value
thus, emphasis is on observable behavior
Brief History of Behavior Therapy
- Watson experiment - class conditioning fear of white rats N Little Albert
Little Albert liked 2 play w/white rat
in experiment, paired presentation of rat w/loud noise
after a few pairings, Little Albert cried @ sight of rat
soon showed same fear 2 any white, furry object
- Thus, demonstrated abnormal behavior (phobia) could be learned
Watson said, probably many phobias are conditioned
emotional reactions
Case of Little Peter
2
- Jones demonstrated phobias could B unlearned
- taught 3 year old boy w/a fear of rabbits 2 like them
- brought caged rabbit closer & closer while Peter was
eating
fear was grad eliminated
- supposedly b/c feared object became assoc w/pleasure of
eating
Behavior therapy as a school of therapy
-this occurred when Joseph Wolpe began promoting his
style of therapy
- Wolpe taught pts 2 induce deep muscle relaxation
w/phobic situation
- - known as systematic desensitization
method was immediate hit among US clinical psychologists
- behaviorism became a hit in US
REASON:
American psychos realized here was a theory/tech that
could challenge psychoanalysis N explanatory & treatment
power AND
behav therapies promised:
- 2 B quick
- 2 B relatively inexpensive
- 2 B effective way 2 meet increased demand 4
services following WWII
Principles of Behaviorism Principles of Learning
- traditional learning theory 2 basic types of conditioning/learning
3

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