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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 The First Two Years Cognitive Development (aced the test and got 96%)

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PSYC 4070
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Chapter 6 The First Two Years Cognitive DevelopmentSensorimotor IntelligenceAdaptation according to Piaget is the core of intelligence Piaget described four distinct periods of cognitive development The first begins at birth and ends at about 24 months Piaget called it sensorimotor intelligence because infants learn through their senses and motor skills This twoyearlong period is subdivided into six stagesPrimary Circular ReactionsThe first of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence this one involving the infants own body The infant senses motion sucking noise and other stimuli and tries to understand theStage 1Stage of ReflexesThis stage lasts for only one month It includes senses as well as motor reflexes the foundations of infant thought Reflexes become deliberate sensation leads to perception and then to cognition Stage 2Stage of First HabitsAdaptation is cognitive it includes both assimilation and accommodation which people use to understand their experience Infants adapt their reflexes as repeated responses provide information about what the body does and how that action feelsEx Sucking a pacifier differently from a nipple grabbing a bottle to suck itOnce an adaptation is successful it sticks For instance breastfed babies may reject milk from a bottle and if the parent of a three monthold thumbsucker decides that a pacifier would be better the infant may refuseSecondary Circular ReactionsThis feedback loop involves people and objects Infants respond to other people to toys and to any other object they can touch or moveStage 3Making Interesting Events LastDuring stage three 48 months infants attempt to produce exciting experiencesEx Realizing that rattles make noise they wave their arms and laugh whenever someone puts a rattle in their hand Stage 4New Adaptations and AnticipationStage 4 8 months1year also called the means to the end because babies have goals that they try to reach Often they ask for help fussing pointing gesturing to accomplish with they wantEx Instead of always smiling at Daddy an infant might first assess Daddys mood and they try to engage Stage three babies know how to continue an experience stage four babies initiate and anticipateA 10 monthold girl might crawl over to her mother bringing a bar of soap as a signal to start her bath and then remover her clothes to make her wish crystal clear Similarly if a 10month old
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