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Chapter

Humans And Natural Resources


Department
Renewable Natural Resources
Course Code
RNR 1001
Professor
All

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Humans and Natural Resources
One constant that has accompanied the development of conservation as a science and social
movement has been the steady increase in human population size.
o 83,333,333 per year
o 6,944,444 per month
o 1,602,564 per week
o 228,310 per day
o 9,513 per hour
o 159 per minute
o 2.65 per second
Populations grow and shrink based on the relative magnitude of four processes: birth, death,
immigration, and emigration
One way to look at birth rates is the total fertility rate (TFR), the number of theoretical births per
woman during her lifetime, calculated by summing age-specific reproductive rates from 15-45
o Not dependent of population age structure
o Replacement TFR is about 2.1 (industrialized), 2.5-3.3 (developing)
Another measure of the magnitude of birth is the crude birth rate
o The number of childbirths per 1,000 people per year
o Affected by the age structure of the population
The crude death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people per year
o Also dependent on age structure and probability of mortality, may even be higher in
developed than developing countries as populations age
Doubling time = 70/APGR
In addition to how many people there are, another important factor influencing population growth
is the age structure the population pyramid (expansive, constrictive)
Countries generally move from expansive to constrictive age structures as they become
industrialized and develop their economies
o The demographic transition
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