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Chapter 3

ITS 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Enculturation

International Studies
Course Code
ITS 201
Kathryn Lafever

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Anthropology: the study of human similarities and differences.
Culture is the differences in beliefs and behavior
Common Sense: set of unstated assumption we share within our community that can be relied
upon to make sense of the world
-Common sense varies between cultures.
Intercultural Relations: Flows of symbols across global landscape.
-Cultural misunderstanding is very common when it comes to policy
Culture: Learned system of meanings through which people orient themselves in the world so
they can act in it.
Symbol: Something that stands for something else to someone in some respect.
-Symbols are arbitrary
Generation of Similarity: institutions and processes that teach and reinforce common beliefs and
values for action among members of a community
Organization of Difference: Political and social institutions with power to regulate behavior and
reward or punish behaviors.
Culture is learned
-Enculturation: process of passing culture to new generations
+Formal Learning: acquisition of cultural knowledge that happens within
institutions designed for that purpose
-Informal Learning: Process of learning culture through everyday activities
+This is how most culture is learned]
-Embodiment: how culture shapes the body and unconscious behavior
+Example: accents
Culture is adaptive and constantly changing
-Changes because of internal and external pressure
-Creativity is a fundamental human trait
-Diffusion of ideas can occur through direct contact like migration or indirect contact
such as trade
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