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Chapter 11

ITS 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Islamism, Capital Flight, Hajj

International Studies
Course Code
ITS 201
Kathryn Lafever

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The Middle East is a very heterogenous region compared to the rest of the world
-The Middle East has lots of linguistic diversity and many dialects of Arabic are spoken
throughout the region
+Fusha is a classical Arabic dialect taken from the Quran
-There is more religious diversity in the Middle East than most westerners believe
because of the dominance of Islam in the region
+The Middle East was the birthplace of numerous extinct religions like
+Many of the extinct and living religions found in the Middle East have shared
beliefs and characteristics
The word “Islam” means “submission”
5 Pillars of Islam (arkaan)
-1) Declaration of faith for only Allah (Shahada)
-2) Praying (usually 5 times a day)
-3) Fasting (during Ramadan)
-4) Charity (2% of net worth per year)
-5) Pilgrimage to Mecca which must be taken at least once in a person’s life so long as
economic situations allow (hajj)
Islam as a religion isn’t practiced the same universally between sects and regions or within sects
and regions
-One example of the difference in practices is Sharia law and its multiple interpretations
found throughout the world
-Coffee and tobacco are permitted or allowed depending on interpretation of the ban
on intoxicants
The creation of nation-states following the end of World War II was difficult because of the
Middle East’s diversity
-There is still lots of tribalism in the Middle East and can become the basis for state
power like in Saudi Arabia
Protostates are communities of minority groups like the Kurds who don’t have a coherent state of
their own
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