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United States (205,960)
Psychology (22)
PSY 111 (4)
Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 111
Professor
Dr.Palladino
Semester
Summer

Description
Psychology [study of the mind]—study of behavior and mental processes Wilhelm Wundt—founded the first psych lab in 1879 at University of Leipzig. Generally credited as the founder of Psychology  One of his major goals was to analyze the contents of consciousness o Method: Introspection—looking into your own consciousness (describe an orange) o Topics of research: social, language, sensation, perception, etc. o Not particularly interested in application  Superb educator (father of psychology). Structuralism—goal was to analyze the basic elements of the conscious experience.  B. Titchener (1867-1927)—associated with Structuralism. Student of Wundt. Brought psychology to the USA  Used introspection  Cognitive Psychology—study of higher mental processes such as thinking, knowing, and deciding. Focuses on how thoughts occur, how memories work, and how information is organized and stored. (Grew from Structuralism) Functionalism—approach that focuses on the purposes of consciousness  William James (1842-1910)—“stream of consciousness”. You can’t pick it apart, or it will lose its reality  James Rowland Angell  Earliest applied psychology Gesalt Psychology—our perception of a whole is different than the sum of all parts (film)  Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)  Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967)  Kurt Koffka (1886-1941) Behavioral Perspective—view that behavior and mental processes can be understood and explained by underlying physiology, like functioning of the brain’s neurons and neurotransmitters Evolutionary Perspective—interested in the role a physiological structure or behavior plays in helping an organism adapt to its environment Psychodynamic Perspective—normal and abnormal behaviors are determined primarily by unconscious forces  Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)—Analysis of dreams, slips of the tongue, effect of childhood experiences o People (even children) are driven by sexual motives o Psychoanalytical therapy—treatment for maladaptive behavior  Goal: bring unconscious causes of behavior to a conscious level Humanistic Perspective—Emphasizes free will and control over behavior  Carl Rogers (1902-1987)  Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)  Humans have a basic need to grow to their full potential Environmental, Population, and Conservation Perspective—concerned with the interaction among human behavior, the population, and the environment Cultural and Diversity Perspective—focuses on influence of different cultures and individuals Eclectic Approach—view of psychology that combines several approaches. Common among present-day psychology Evaluating Information  Who is making the claim? Identify bias. o Bias—beliefs that interfere with objectivity  Is the claim based on casual observation or scientific testing?  Understand statistics and whether or not they are significant  Law of Parsimony—the simplest explanation (that requires less assumptions) is most often correct  Placebo effect—positive effects associated with a person’s beliefs and attitudes about a drug Research Methods in Psychology  Scientific Method used  Case Study—(a.k.a. Clinical Study) in-depth analysis of one person. Often used when not many subjects are available (ex. Ted Bundy) o Popularized by Freud as he developed his psychoanalytical theory of personality o Advantage: lots of detailed information o Disadvantage: May not generalize  Naturalistic Observation—study of behavior in its typical setting. Observers must be careful not to alter behavior. (non-reactive, unobtrusive)  Correlation research—understand that a correlation between two variables doesn’t mean one caused the other. Consider the possibility of a
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