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Chapter 4

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PSY 111

Memory—system or process by which the products or results of learning are stored for future use Models of memory  Three stages o 1. Encoding—put into a form to get into the system  Say out loud, picture, meaning o Storage—so it can be retained over time  There is no specific spot in the brain for memory o Retrieval—located and retrieved  Model suggests that incoming information must be processed, but it must also be registered (figuring out it is actually there) Eidetic memory—photographic memory <1% Spurling wanted to know if we all have an eidetic memory.  He flashed 12 letters for 1/20 second  Most could remember 4 or 5 of 12 (Whole Report)  New spin, he played a tone (high, medium, or low) ½ second after flash and asked them to recall one line (high, medium, or low) they could recall almost the whole line (partial report) o We have eidetic memory for a very short period of time. Lasts ½-1 second. Iconic Memory/Iconic Register—brief memory of visual items. ½-1 second Echoic memory—sound 2-3 seconds Eidetic Memory  Another way to asses eidetic memory. Decompose a photograph into many dots. Show the 2 halves that mean nothing by themselves and someone with eidetic memory can layer them and see the picture. Encoding (ex. Thunstoam)  Visual Encoding—look at something. Close your eyes. Still see it  Acoustic Encoding—Remember how it sounds to say it  Semantic/Meaning—often superior to the first 2  Automatic—Not consciously aware. Applies to space, time, frequency o ex. Unconsciously keeping track of the number of times you’ve run into someone today. Retracing your steps  Effortful—deliberate o ex. Rehearsal Ebbinghaus  Overlearning—repeat the information after we have been able to remember it. Making memories stronger  Serial Learning/Ordered Recall—procedure in which material that has been learned must be repeated in order in which it was presented  Free Recall—procedure in which material that has been learned may be repeated in any order  Serial Position effect (primary-recency)—remember information at the beginning and end of the list best  Paired-Associate Learning—procedure in which items to be recalled are learning in pairs. Recall will present one member and ask for other. (like when learning a second language)  Effortful processing—mere rote rehearsal leads right to the curve of forgetting. It is not effective o Overlearning is one way to increase retention o Most often, we use maintenance rehearsal (mere repetition), especially if we are trying to recall facts and concepts for tests. But, there are more effective ways of processing information o Distributed practice—better to learn a little at a time than in one block for long-term recall. o Nothing processed, nothing stored o If you remember information, through sole repetition to the point where you can repeat it once, you will lose 50% of the information in 1 hour. Ways we can go about processing information  Add meaning. o What was the story about (laundry example)  Imagery o People who form very vivid images are better at memorizing information o Concrete, high-imagery, words are remembered better than abstract, low-imagery, words  Computer V. Void, Neon V. Inherent, o History: Ancient Greek Orators associated each part of a talk with a statue they were passing (Loci—location) o Bower and Clark (1969) Rote memory (repetition) vs. Imager for 12 lists of 12 words each  Results: Rote 13%, Imagery 93% o Organization  Scrambled words are hard to remember, but words aren’t. Take information and process it as a chunk/meaningful unit, like a word  Homes for Greate Lakes, Roygbiv Storage  Capacity depends  Sensory Register—large, but brief  Short-Term memory—15-20 seconds and 7 +/- 2 chunks o Chunks are like buckets (rhythm of telephone numbers)  Working Memory—second stage of short-term memory. Attention and conscious effort are brought to material.  Long-Term memory—large but not permanent. o Explicit memory—memories that we are consciously aware of, such as facts or personal events. Can be subdivided into semantic and episodic memory  Semantic Memory—Memory for general knowledge  Episodic Memory—Memory of personal experiences  Flashbulb Memory—Detailed memory of an arousing, surprising, or emotional situation o Implicit Memory—Memories we are not consciously aware of but can still influence our behavior and mental processes. Can be subdivide into priming and procedural memory  Priming—Unconscious memory processing in which prior exposure to stimulus items may aid subsequent learning  Procedural Memory—memory for making responses and performing skilled actions 
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