• Most DNAis found in the nucleus, but a small amount is found in the mitochondria.
• All biological structures, from nerve cells, to blood and bone cells, are made up primarily of
proteins (which are made up of amino acids:ATA=Tyrosine and TCG= Serine)
• 64 possible combinations ofAminoAcids
• RNA: The molecule that functions to carry out the instructions for protein synthesis specified
by the DNAmolecule. In RNAthe baseAattract a base called U instead of T.
• Messenger RNA: the form of RNAthat transports the genetic instructions from the DNA
molecule to the site of protein synthesis.
• Transfer DNA:Afree floating molecule that is attracted to a strand of messenger RNA,
resulting in the synthesis of a protein chain.
• Chromosomes: a long strand of DNAsequences. Found in the nucleus of each cell and also in
the sex cells
• Gene: a DNAsequence that codes for a functional polypeptide or RNAproduct.
• Hemoglobin: the molecule in blood cells that transports oxygen.
• Exon:Asection of DNAthat codes for the amino acids that make up proteins. It is contrasted
with an intron.
• Intron:Asection of DNAthat does not code for the amino acids that make up proteins. It is
contrasted with and exon.
• Regulatory gene:Agene that acts as a genetic switch to turn protein-coding genes on or off.
• Homeobox Genes: a group of regulatory genes that encode a sequence of 60 amino acids
regulating embryonic development.
• Mitosis: The process of replication of chromosomes in body cells.
• Meiosis: The creation of sex cells by replication of chromosomes followed by cell division.
• Genome: The total DNAsequence of an organism.
• Locus: The specific location of a gene or DNAsequence on a chromosome.
• Allele: The alternative form of a gene or DNAsequence that occurs at a given locus. Some loci
have only one allele, some have two and some have many alternative forms.Alleles occur in
pairs, one on each chromosome.
• Mendel's Law of Segregation: States that sex cells contain one of each pair of al