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ANP 201 (11)
Chapter 2

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ANP 201

Chapter 2 • Most DNAis found in the nucleus, but a small amount is found in the mitochondria. • All biological structures, from nerve cells, to blood and bone cells, are made up primarily of proteins (which are made up of amino acids:ATA=Tyrosine and TCG= Serine) • 64 possible combinations ofAminoAcids • RNA: The molecule that functions to carry out the instructions for protein synthesis specified by the DNAmolecule. In RNAthe baseAattract a base called U instead of T. • Messenger RNA: the form of RNAthat transports the genetic instructions from the DNA molecule to the site of protein synthesis. • Transfer DNA:Afree floating molecule that is attracted to a strand of messenger RNA, resulting in the synthesis of a protein chain. • Chromosomes: a long strand of DNAsequences. Found in the nucleus of each cell and also in the sex cells • Gene: a DNAsequence that codes for a functional polypeptide or RNAproduct. • Hemoglobin: the molecule in blood cells that transports oxygen. • Exon:Asection of DNAthat codes for the amino acids that make up proteins. It is contrasted with an intron. • Intron:Asection of DNAthat does not code for the amino acids that make up proteins. It is contrasted with and exon. • Regulatory gene:Agene that acts as a genetic switch to turn protein-coding genes on or off. • Homeobox Genes: a group of regulatory genes that encode a sequence of 60 amino acids regulating embryonic development. • Mitosis: The process of replication of chromosomes in body cells. • Meiosis: The creation of sex cells by replication of chromosomes followed by cell division. • Genome: The total DNAsequence of an organism. • Locus: The specific location of a gene or DNAsequence on a chromosome. • Allele: The alternative form of a gene or DNAsequence that occurs at a given locus. Some loci have only one allele, some have two and some have many alternative forms.Alleles occur in pairs, one on each chromosome. • Mendel's Law of Segregation: States that sex cells contain one of each pair of al
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