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ANP 201 (11)
Chapter 3

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ANP 201

Chapter 3 • The genotype frequency is a measure of the relative proportions of different genotypes within a population. ◦ This is obtained by dividing the number of individuals with each genotype by the total number of individuals. • Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium:Amathematical statement whereby, in the absence of nonrandom mating and evolutionary forces, genotype and allele frequencies will remain the same from one generation to the next. • Evolutionary forces: four mechanisms that can cause changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next; mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow. • Nonrandom mating: patterns of mate choice that influence the distributions of genotype and phenotype frequencies. • Inbreeding: mating between biologically related individuals. • The Evolutionary Forces: ◦ Mutation ◦ Natural Selection ◦ Genetic Drift ◦ Gene Flow • Mutation: ◦ Introduces new alleles into a population ◦ Polymorphism:Adiscrete genetic trait in which there are at least two alleles at a locus having frequencies greater then 0.01 • Natural Selection: ◦ Does not create new genetic variation, but it can change the relative frequencies of different alleles. ◦
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